), officially the
Arab Republic of Egypt
, is a countrymainly in North Africa, with theSinai Peninsulaforming a land bridge inSouthwest Asia.
Thereby, Egypt is atranscontinental country, and is considered to be a major power in NorthAfrica,Mediterranean Region,Africancontinent, Nile Basin,Islamic Worldand theRed Sea.
Covering an area of about 1,010,000 square kilometers (390,000 sq mi), Egypt is bordered by theMediterranean Seato the north, theGaza StripandIsraelto the northeast, the Red Sea to the
east,Sudanto the south andLibyato the west.
Egypt is one of the most populous countries in Africa and theMiddle East. The great majority of its estimated 79 million people
live near the banks of the NileRiver, in an area of about40,000 square kilometers (15,000 sq mi),
where the onlyarableagricultural land isfound. The large areas of theSaharaDesert are sparsely inhabited. About half of Egypt'sresidents live in urban areas, with most spread across the densely populated centres of greater Cairo,Alexandriaand other major cities in the Nile Delta.
Egypt is famous for itsancient civilizationand some of the world's most famous monuments,including theGiza pyramid complexand itsGreat Sphinx. Its ancient ruins, such as those of
Memphis,Thebes,Karnak and theValley of the Kings, are a significant focus of archaeological
study, and artefacts from these sites are now displayed in major museums around the world.Egypt is widely regarded as an important political and cultural nation of the Middle East.Egypt possesses one of the most developed and diversified economies in the Middle East, withsectors such as tourism, agriculture, industry and service at almost equal rates in national production.
Consequently, the Egyptian economy is rapidly developing, due in part tolegislation aimed at luring investments, coupled with both internal and political stability, alongwith recent trade and market liberalization.