EVALUATION OF THE DEFECTS IN TYPE-I CNG CYLINDER USINGACOUSTIC EMISSION TECHNIQUE
, Tonphong Kaewkongka
King Mongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok Bangsue, Bangkok 10800, Thailand Email :email@example.com
Department of Physics, Chulalongkorn UniversityPathumwan, Bangkok 10330, Thailand Email :firstname.lastname@example.org
Department of Production Engineering,King Mongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok Bangsue, Bangkok 10800, Thailand Email : email@example.com
Defects on compressed natural gas (CNG) storagecylinders can often result in damage of costly cylinders.Acoustic emission (AE) testing was performed on type Isteel cylinder. These studies suggested that the elastic stresswaves or acoustic emissions generated during themicroscopic dislocation can propagate across the storagecylinder surface to be detectable by the sensors attached atthe ends of the cylinder. This paper presents a preliminarystudy on the signal transmission and propagation of acousticemission (AE) signatures across the cylinder with andwithout a predefined surface crack. During the test, agradual increase in hydrostatic pressure up to 400 bars wasapplied to the cylinder. The AE signals were recorded as afunction of time and the increased pressure. It is thereforeobvious that AE can be used to capture the defects due tocrack propagation.
CNG Cylinder, Acoustic Emission,Surface Crack Propagation,
To assure the safety of vehicles using compressednatural gas (CNG) is an important issue in Thailand. Therehave been several accidents from CNG-cylinder explosionsin the past. The periodical inspection requires the firstinspection after the cylinder has been using for 3 years.However, the inspection is normally carried out by visualinspection. Consequently, the risk is relied on the inspection by licensed professional engineers since the internal defectscannot be examined.The fully inspection can be accomplished by ultrasonictest but this method requires removal of the cylinder fromthe vehicles. Therefore, this test method is impractical dueto time-consuming and high inspection cost.Recently, acoustic emission (AE) technique has beenstandardized for gas cylinder inspection as described inISO/DIS 16148.2 . Using AE technique, the inspectioncan be quickly performed without disassembling thecylinder from vehicle. However, Craig Webster  hasfound out that the AE test based on ISO/DIS 16148.2 isunable to evaluate defects in Type I steel cylinder. Mark P.Connelly and Han Dinh  proposed the AE techniquecalled “Source Location Acoustic Monitoring (SLAM)” toinspect US Postal Service vehicles. They concluded that theinspection cost for acoustic emission SLAM test is abouthalf of the cost for conventional hydrostatic test. They alsoclaimed that the SLAM test has the ability to locate both theexternal/internal flaws.Stephen J. Hudak  has used AE technique toevaluate remaining life-time of the cylinders. He found thatat the initial crack of about 25 percent of the wall thicknessthe cylinder has the remaining life-time for 95 years!, whilethe deeper crack of 40 percent of the wall thickness thecylinder is last for 5 years under the cyclic load caused bydaily refueling pressure ranging from 300 to 3,000 psi.A major benefit of AE inspection is that it can allowthe whole volume of the cylinder to be tested non-intrusively in a pressurized operating condition. Generally,the global AE inspection is used to identify areas with the presence of defect problems and other NDT methods arethen used to identify more precisely location and the rootcause of the AE sources.