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Clinical Data Warehouse on Insect Vector Diseases to Human of Andhra Pradesh

Clinical Data Warehouse on Insect Vector Diseases to Human of Andhra Pradesh

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Published by ijcsis
The Widespread of Insect Vector Diseases to humans is causing substantial morbidity and economic loss to our nation. The year 2006 is likely to go down as one of the worst years in terms of public health, which has witnessed a high incidence of Insect Vector Diseases such as Malaria, Chikungunya, Dengue, Lymphatic Filariasis, And Japanese Encephalitis. This stressed the need to track the relevant information about these diseases. The reliable and quickly retrievable clinical data on disease wise is a need of the hour with which planners can prepare their strategies to control and curb the diseases. From the aforesaid point of view this particular data warehouse (DWH) going to be handy to the planners.
The Widespread of Insect Vector Diseases to humans is causing substantial morbidity and economic loss to our nation. The year 2006 is likely to go down as one of the worst years in terms of public health, which has witnessed a high incidence of Insect Vector Diseases such as Malaria, Chikungunya, Dengue, Lymphatic Filariasis, And Japanese Encephalitis. This stressed the need to track the relevant information about these diseases. The reliable and quickly retrievable clinical data on disease wise is a need of the hour with which planners can prepare their strategies to control and curb the diseases. From the aforesaid point of view this particular data warehouse (DWH) going to be handy to the planners.

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Published by: ijcsis on Sep 10, 2010
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09/27/2010

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Clinical Data Warehouse on Insect Vector Diseases to Human of Andhra Pradesh
1
Dr.M. Usha Rani,
2
M.Kalpana Devi,
3
 
Dr.D.M. Mamatha
4
Dr.R.Seshadri ,
5
Yaswanth Kumar.Avulapti
1
 Associate Professor,
 2
 Research Scholar, Dept. of Computer Science,
 3
 Associate Professor, Dept. of Seri-Bio Sciences, SPMVV, Tirupati
4
 
 Director, S.V.U.Computer Center S.V.University, Tirupati
5
 Research Scholar, Dept of Computer Science ,S.V.University, Tirupati
ABSTRACT
The Widespread of Insect Vector Diseases tohumans is causing substantial morbidity and economic lossto our nation. The year 2006 is likely to go down as one of the worst years in terms of public health, which haswitnessed a high incidence of Insect Vector Diseases suchas
 Malaria,
 
Chikungunya,
 
 Dengue,
 
 Lymphatic Filariasis,
 
 And Japanese Encephalitis.
This stressed the need to track the relevant information about these diseases. The reliableand quickly retrievable clinical data on disease wise is aneed of the hour with which planners can prepare their strategies to control and curb the diseases. From theaforesaid point of view this particular data warehouse(DWH) going to be handy to the planners.
Key Words
:
Insect Vector diseases, Chikungunya,Malaria, Dengue, Lymphatic Filariasis & JapaneseEncephalitis, Clinical data, Data warehouse
1.
 
Introduction
The epidemic diseases are a threat to the societystarting from the stone age to till date. Even though we havegood past experience about epidemic diseases but theproblems are not handled in a proper way. The control of these diseases involves control of three living beings andtheir environment viz. man-the host, mosquito-the vectorand the deadly pathogen-the parasite. Since the vector andthe pathogen are highly adaptable, much of the emphasis ison man i.e. bringing the awareness in public related to theinsect vector diseases.The National and International efforts over theseInsect Vector Diseases control were highly successful in late1950’s and the early 60’s. However, due to various reasonsthe control programs received setbacks all over the worldand today it has come back with vengeance. Presentepidemic of Chikungunya in India after a gap of 30 years, isthe largest ever in the world, with over 1.3 million peopleaffected. For other mosquito borne diseases there has been athreefold increase in Japanese Encephalitis since 2001.Malaria infects 2 million Indians annually. It is time toaddress the research on these lines to explore, where thesystem fails in combating these diseases.
2. Origin of the Research Problem
The widespread of Insect Vector diseases tohuman is causing substantial morbidity and economic lossto our nation. The year 2006, is likely to go down as one of the worst years in terms of public health, which haswitnessed a high incidence of Insect Vector diseases suchas Malaria, Chikungunya, Dengue, Japanese Encephalitis.The WHO regional office for South-East Asia has reported1.3 million cases from 152 districts in 10 states/provincesof India, out of which 7,52,245 were from Karnataka alone.Impact on disease spread includes socio-economic aspects,clinical attendance and barriers to health care and lack of awareness to control the diseases. This stressed the need totrack the relevant information, the various aspects and dataabout these diseases.
3. Significance of the Work
 
The epidemic diseases are a great threat to Indiaand there is a need to construct the data warehouse forprevention, early detection and to take control measures.There is a need to aware the public about epidemic diseases.The information given by data warehouse is useful to theresearchers, academicians, doctors, health workers andGovt. servants including common man. This data keeps usaware and forearmed to prevent such attacks in future.
4. Objectives
This work is proposed to be undertaken with thefollowing objectives:
 
Persons at the helm of affairs at central Government ingeneral and State Government in particular are worselyin need of disease wise clinical data to equipthemselves with corrective cum counter strategies. Thereliable and quickly retrievable clinical data on diseasewise is a need of the hour with which planners canprepare their strategies to control and curb the diseasesfrom this point of view this particular data warehousegoing to be handy to the planners.
 
This data warehouse is for the future use of theresearchers, academicians, Doctors, Health workers andGovt. servants including common man. This data keepsus aware and forearmed to prevent such attacks infuture.
 
The data warehouse and analysis reports will be madepublicly available for further research.
5. Data Warehouse
Data Warehousing is a buzz-phrase that has takenthe information systems’ world by storm. A data warehouse(DWH) can be looked at as an “informational database” thatis maintained separately from an organization’s operationaldatabase. But that would fall short of the full technologicalimplications of the DWH term. The process of transformingdata into information and making it available to the user in atime bound manner to make a difference is known as datawarehousing.In order to serve the decision making process of themanagement the data warehouse has to supply the followingprimary functionality:
 
The DWH is a reflection of the business rules of theenterprise – not just of a specific function or business
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 5, August 2010240http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
unit-as they apply to strategic decision supportinformation.
 
It is the collection point for the Integrated, Subject-Oriented strategic information that is handled by thedata acquisition process.
 
It is the historical store of strategic information, withthe history relating to either the data or its relationships.
 
It is the source of stable data regardless of how theprocesses may change. This requires a data model thatis not influenced by the operational processes creatingthe data.Additionally the data warehouse provides asfunctionality for the support of ad hoc queries.
5.1 The Clinical Data Warehouse
A clinical data warehouse or CDWH is a facilitythat houses all electronic data collected at a clinical center.For any modern clinical institute, it is necessary to separateoperational data from informational data by creating aclinical data warehouse. A growing number of technologiesfor integrating and performing structured analyses of datafrom disparate sources are competing to win the day forhealthcare organizations.A CDWH is therefore a DWH tailored for theneeds of users in a clinical environment, combininginformation from a variety of legacy health-care databasesand cleansed operational data to form a centralized datarepository to answer the informational needs of all clinicalusers.Data warehouse in clinical context havetraditionally been administrative in nature, focusing onpatient billing and patient-care management, organizationalaspect of hospitals that were optimized using datawarehouse technology not much different thancontemporary enterprises. Technology however evolvedquickly and more complex areas of clinical datamanagement could be tackled. The information technologysupported collection process of clinical data has had a longhistory, and the promise of a new technology leveragingthese collections put physicians, nurses and clinicalresearchers right next to the administrators on the map.
5.2 Extraction, Transformation and Loading -Three Stage Method
As data warehouse data are highly aggregated, verycomplex relationships are constructed from various datasources. The process that is responsible for exactly thattransformations is called Extraction Transfer andLoading(ETL) process and handles getting data out of onedata store[extraction], modify it [transfer], and inserting itinto a different data store[loading].Data are extracted from operational databases,legacy systems and external data sources, transformed tomatch the DWH schema, and loaded into the datawarehouse database. Generally ETL is a complexcombination of processes and technology that consumes asignificant portion of the data warehouse developmentresources and time. Further importance is placed on the ETLprocess due to the fact that it is not a one-time event, butstaged periodically. Typical periodicity shows in monthly,weekly, or daily updates, depending on the purpose of thedata warehouse. ETL also changes as the data warehouseevolves, so ETL processes must designed for ease of modification.Once the scope had been set, the relevant data hasto be identified from the raw source data available, toformalize the approach of this task, a method whichtransforms data from the raw data to the source of DWH hasthree steps which are as follows:
 
 
First stage data is the raw data from operationaldatabase.
 
Second stage data is transformed, cleansed andnormalized from stage 1 data.
 
Third stage data is further transformed from stage2, optimized for final fact data representation.“Data stage” software is an ETL Tool selected toimplement data warehouse.
5.2.1 Stage 1- Raw Data
Data collected from the
Ministry of Health andFamily Welfare, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh
.This stagedata is considered as raw source data, which are of tableformat. Data about all the five diseases such asDengueTable, Malaria Table, Chikungunya Table, JapaneseEncephalitis Table,and Filariasis Table are of the sameformat. Description of the sample table is as follows.Dengue Table (District Name CharacterYear NumberTotal Blood SamplesCollected NumberConfirmed Cases NumberNumber of Deaths Number)
5.2.2 Stage 2 - Refined data
Based on the tables from Stage 1 certain designdecisions had to be made before any data modeling couldcommence. Questions likeWhat are the central facts?Which are the dimensions should be focused?Parallel to the modeling process, steps were takento get an idea of what information could be derived fromthe data available. Stage one tables are used to construct textfiles. The description of data files are as follows:
Disease Table
No. of records: 6
We have taken five Mosquito Borne Diseases suchas Malaria, Dengue, Chikungunya, Lymphatic Filariasis,and Japanese Encephalitis. Description of the table asfollows.Disease Table (S. No Number,Disease Id Character,Disease Name Character)(S. No=0, No disease)
District Table
No. of records : 23
(Total number of districts in AndhraPradesh)
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 5, August 2010241http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
Description of the table as follows.District table (District Id Character,District Name Character)
Case–year Table
No. of records
: Number of confirmed cases of a disease ina particular year varies based on the disease and district.We have constructed 9 text files; each containsdata for a single year i.e. from 2000 to 2008.Case Year Table (Case Id Character,District Id Character,Disease Id Character,Blood SamplesCollected or Not Logical,Year Number,Disease Status Logical)Later we combine all the 9 text files into a single text filecalled CASE_ENTIRE_YEAR text file.
Case–District-2009 Table
Total
No. of Records: 33601
We have constructed 23 text files for 23 districtseach contain data for the year 2009. (These tables are forthe current year updation.)Case District 2009(Case Id Character,Disease Id Character,Blood Samples Logical,Year Number,Disease Status Logical)Later we combine all the 23 districts text files into a singletext file called CASE_HISTORY text file.
Death Table
No. of records: 1200
Death table (Case Id Character,District Id Character,Disease Id Character,Blood SamplesCollected or not Logical,Year Number,Disease Status Logical,Death Id Character)
5.2.3 Stage3-LoadingStage(Clinical Warehousecreation)
Data from all the text files was extracted and storedin an Oracle file, while transforming primary keys are to bespecified in the oracle table.Fig: 1
 
Data from all the Case tables from 23 districts for asingle year (for example 2009 data) are combined using link collector into another sequential file by using Round RobinAlgorithm.
: :
Case_2009 Job
Fig: 2The resulted sequential table is then transformed to Oracletable with the same attributes.Data from all the Case-year tables for 9 years(2000 to 2008) are combined using link collector intoanother sequential file by using Round Robin Algorithm.
Case
Chittoor
 
Text files for allDistricts
Case
entire_year
 
Case – idDistrict – idDisease – idBlood –samplesYear
 Disease_status
Text file
Case_KadapaCase_HyderabadLink Collector
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 5, August 2010242http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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