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A Novel Approach for Cardiac Disease Prediction and Classification Using Intelligent Agents

A Novel Approach for Cardiac Disease Prediction and Classification Using Intelligent Agents

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Published by ijcsis
The goal is to develop a novel approach for cardiac disease prediction and diagnosis using intelligent agents. Initially the symptoms are preprocessed using filter and wrapper based agents. The filter removes the missing or irrelevant symptoms. Wrapper is used to extract the data in the data set according to the threshold limits. The classification is based on the prior and posterior probability of the symptoms with the evidence value. Finally the symptoms are classified in to five classes namely absence, starting, mild, moderate, serious. Using the cooperative approach the cardiac problem is solved and verified.
The goal is to develop a novel approach for cardiac disease prediction and diagnosis using intelligent agents. Initially the symptoms are preprocessed using filter and wrapper based agents. The filter removes the missing or irrelevant symptoms. Wrapper is used to extract the data in the data set according to the threshold limits. The classification is based on the prior and posterior probability of the symptoms with the evidence value. Finally the symptoms are classified in to five classes namely absence, starting, mild, moderate, serious. Using the cooperative approach the cardiac problem is solved and verified.

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Published by: ijcsis on Sep 10, 2010
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 A Novel Approach for Cardiac Disease Predictionand Classification Using Intelligent Agents
Murugesan Kuttikrishnan
Department of Computer Science and EngineeringAnna University, Chennai, Indiamurugesan_k3@yahoo.com
Manjula Dhanabalachandran
Department of Computer Science and EngineeringAnna University, Chennai, Indiamanju@annauniv.edu 
 Abstract
 — 
The goal is to develop a novel approach forcardiac disease prediction and diagnosis using intelligentagents. Initially the symptoms are preprocessed using filterand wrapper based agents. The filter removes the missingor irrelevant symptoms. Wrapper is used to extract thedata in the data set according to the threshold limits. Theclassification is based on the prior and posteriorprobability of the symptoms with the evidence value.Finally the symptoms are classified in to five classesnamely absence, starting, mild, moderate, serious. Usingthe cooperative approach the cardiac problem is solvedand verified.Keywords- Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), NaïveBayesian Classification (NBC), Bayesian Networks (BN).
I.
 
INTRODUCTIONIntelligent agents are a new paradigm fordeveloping software applications. More than this,agent-based computing has been haile
d as „the nextsignificant breakthrough in software development‟(Sargent, 1992), and „the new revolution insoftware‟ (Ovum, 1994). Currently, agents are the
focus of intense interest on the part of many sub-fields of computer science and artificial intelligence.Agents are being used in an increasingly widevariety of applications, ranging from comparativelysmall systems such as email filters to large, open,complex, mission critical systems such as air trafficcontrol. At first sight, it may appear that suchextremely different types of system can have littlein common. And yet this is not the case: in both, thekey abstraction used is that of an agent.First, an agent is a computer system situatedin some environment, and that is capable of autonomous action in this environment in order tomeet its design objectives. Autonomy is a difficultconcept to pin down precisely, but we mean it
simply in the sense • that the system should be able
to act without the direct intervention of humans (orother agents), and should have control over its ownactions and internal state. It may be helpful to draw
an analogy between the notion • of autonomy withrespect to agents and encapsulation • with respect to
object oriented systems. An object encapsulatessome state, and has some control over this state inthat it can only be accessed or modified via themethods that the object provides. Agentsencapsulate state in just the same way. However, wealso think of agents as encapsulating behavior, inaddition to state. An object does not encapsulatebehavior: it has no control over the execution of methods
 – 
if an object x invokes a method m on anobject y, then y has no control over whether m isexecuted or not
 – 
it just is. In this sense, object y isnot autonomous, as it has no control over its ownactions. In contrast, we think of an agent as havingexactly this kind of control over what actions itperforms. Because of this distinction, we do notthink of agents as invoking methods (actions) onagents
 – 
rather, we tend to think of them requestingactions to be performed. The decision aboutwhether to act upon the request lies with therecipient. .An intelligent agent is a computer systemthat is capable of flexible autonomous action in
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 5, August 2010255http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
order to meet its design objectives. By flexible, wemean that the system must be:responsive: agents should perceive theirenvironment (which may be the physicalworld, a user, a collection of agents, theInternet, etc.) and respond in a timelyfashion to changes that occur in it.proactive: agents should not simply act inresponse to their environment, they shouldbe able to exhibit opportunistic, goal-directed behavior and take the initiativewhere appropriate, and Applications of Intelligent Agentssocial: agents should be able to interact,when they deem appropriate, with otherartificial agents and humans in order tocomplete their own problem solving and tohelp others with their activities.
Hereafter, when we use the term „agent‟, it
should be understood that we are using it as an
abbreviation for „intelligent agent‟. Other 
researchers emphasize different aspects of agency(including, for example, mobility or adaptability).Naturally, some agents may have additionalcharacteristics, and for certain types of applications,some attributes will be more important than others.However, we believe that it is the presence of allfour attributes in a single software entity thatprovides the power of the agent paradigm andwhich distinguishes agent systems from relatedsoftware paradigms
 – 
such as object-orientedsystems, distributed sysems, and expert systems(see Wooldridge (1997) for a more detaileddiscussion). By an agent-based system, we meanone in which the key abstraction used is that of anagent. In principle, an agent-based system might beconceptualized in terms of agents, but implementedwithout any software structures corresponding toagents at all. We can again draw a parallel withobject-oriented software, where it is entirelypossible to design a system in terms of objects, butto implement it without the use of an object-oriented software environment. But this would atbest be unusual, and at worst, counterproductive. Asimilar situation exists with agent technology; wetherefore expect an agent-based system to be bothdesigned and implemented in terms of agents. Anumber of software tools exist that allow a user toimplement software systems as agents, and associeties of cooperating agents. Note that an agent-based system may contain any non-zero number of agents. The multi-agent case
 – 
where a system isdesigned and implemented as several interactingagents, is both more general and significantly morecomplex than the single-agent case. However, thereare a number of situations where the single-agentcase is appropriate.II.
 
RELATED WORKTraditional diagnosis in TCM requires longexperiences and a high level of skill, and issubjective and deficient in quantitative diagnosticcriteria. This seriously affects the reliability andrepeatability of diagnosis and limits thepopularization of TCM. So the focal problem thatneeds to be solved urgently is to construct methodsor models to quantify the diagnosis in TCM.[1]Recently, a few researchers developed somemethods and systems to modernize TCM. But mostof them are built incorporating totally or partiallyrulebased reasoning model, which are lack of thefeasibility of implementing all possible inference bychaining rules and limits their practical applicationsin clinical medicines.An attraction tool formanaging various forms of uncertainty is Bayesiannetworks (BNs) [2], [3] which is able to representknowledge with uncertainty and efficientlyperforming reasoning tasks.Naive Bayesianclassifier (NBC) is a simplified form of BNs thatassumes independence of the observations. Someresearch results [4], [5], [6] have demonstrated thatthe predictive performance of NBC can becompetitive with more complicated classifiers.Inthis study, a novel computerized diagnostic modelbased on naive Bayesian classifier (NBC) isproposed. Firstly, a Bayesian network structure islearned from a database of cases [7] to find thesymptom set that are dependent on the diseasedirectly.Secondly, the symptom set is utilized asattributes of NBC and the mapping relationshipsbetween the symptom set and the disease areconstructed.To reduce the dimensionality andimprove the prediction accuracy of diagnostic
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 5, August 2010256http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
model, symptom selection is requisite.Many featureselection methods, such as filters [8] and wrappers[9], have developed. But the dependencyrelationships among symptoms and the mappingrelationships between symptom and syndrome arenot considered in these methods, which areimportant to diagnosis in TCM.To lower the influences of irrelativesymptoms, the mutual information between eachsymptom and disease is computed based oninformation entropy theory [10], which is utilized toassess the significance of symptoms.The paper [11]presents a multiagent system for supportingphysicians in performing clinical studies in realtime. The multiagent system is specialized in thecontrolling of patients with respect to theirappointment behavior. Novel types of agents aredesigned to play a special role as representatives forhumans in the environment of clinical studies.OnkoNet mobile agents have been used successfullyfor patient-centric medical problems solving[12].,emerged from a project covering all relevantissues, from empirical process studies in cancerdiagnosis/therapy, down to system implementationand validation. In the paper [13], a medicaldiagnosis multiagent system that is organizedaccording to the principles of swarm intelligence isproposed. It consists of a large number of agentsthat interact with each other by simple indirectcommunication.In the paper [14], a system called Felinecomposed of five autonomous agents (expertsystems with some proprieties of the agents)endowed with medical knowledge is proposed.These agents cooperate to identify the causes of anemia at cats. The paper [39], also presents adevelopment methodology for cooperating expertsystems.In the paper [15], a Web-centric extensionto a previously developed expert system specializedin the glaucoma diagnosis is proposed. Theproposed telehealth solution publishes services of the developed Glaucoma Expert System on theWorld Wide Web.Each agent member of the CMDSsystem has problems solving capability and capacity(the notions are defined in [16, 17]). The capacity of an agent Agf (Agf U MDUAS)consists in theamount of problems that can be solved by the agent,using the existent problem solving resources.Thecooperative medical diagnosis problems solving bythe diagnosis system is partially based on theblackboard-based problem solving [18, 19]. Theproblem solving by the BMDS system is similarwith the situations, when more physicians withdifferent medical specializations plans a treatmentto cure an illness that is in an advanced stage.Treatments known to be effective for the curing of the illness in a less advanced stage cannot beapplied.From the entire discussions one cancomprehend and classify the medical agent-basedIDSS research [20] into two categories, namelyClinical Management and Clinical Research.Clinical Management envelops all clinical systemsthat are designed to help the doctor with diagnosingand deciding on treatment for medical conditions.Clinical Research on the erstwhile envelopessystems that are used to research facts andconnections in attempt to detect new trends andpatterns; it covers systems for both diagnosingpatients and treating them.III. PREPROCESSING AND CLASSIFICATION
3.1 Filter agent
Feature selection, as a preprocessing step tomachine learning, is effective in reducingdimensionality, removing irrelevant data, in-creasing learning accuracy, and improving resultcomprehensibility. In this work, we introduce anovel concept, predominant correlation, andpropose a faster method which can identify relevantfeatures as well as redundancy among relevantfeatures without pair wise correlation analysis. Theefficiency and effectiveness of our method isdemonstrated through extensive comparisons withother methods using real-world data of highdimensionality.
3.2 Wrapper agent
In Wrapper based feature selection, the morestates that are visited during the search phase of thealgorithm the greater the likelihood of finding a
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 5, August 2010257http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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