Introduction

1.1 Origin and Discovery of Quantum Mechanics

1.2 Contradicting Discretization: Uncertainties

2.2 The Hamilton Formalism

2.3 Liouville Equation, Probabilities

2.3.1 Single particle consideration

2.3.2 Ensemble consideration

2.4 Expectation Values of Observables

2.5 Extension beyond Classical Mechanics

Mathematical Foundations of
Quantum Mechanics

3.1 Introductory Remarks

3.2 Hilbert Spaces

4.2 Ket and Bra States

4.3 Linear Operators, Hermitian Operators

4.4 Observables

4.5 Representation Spaces and Basis Vectors

Schrodinger Equation and
Liouville Equation

5.1 Introductory Remarks

5.2 The Density Matrix

5.3 The Probability Density p(x, t)

5.4 Schrodinger Equation and Liouville Equation

5.4.1 Evaluation of the density matrix

Quantum Mechanics of the
Harmonic Oscillator

6.1 Introductory Remarks

6.2 The One-Dimensional Linear Oscillator

6.3 The Energy Representation of the Oscillator

6.4 The Configuration Space Representation

6.5 The Harmonic Oscillator Equation

6.5.1 Derivation of the generating function

Green's Functions

7.1 Introductory Remarks

7.2 Time-dependent and Time-independent Cases

7.4 Green's Function of the Harmonic Oscillator

7.5 The Inverted Harmonic Oscillator

7.5.1 Wave packets

7.5.2 A particle's sojourn time T at the maximum

Time-Independent
Perturbation Theory

8.1 Introductory Remarks

8.2 Asymptotic Series versus Convergent Series

8.2.1 The error function and Stokes discontinuities

8.2.2 Stokes discontinuities of oscillator functions

8.3 Asymptotic Series from Differential Equations

8.4 Formal Definition of Asymptotic Expansions

8.5 Rayleigh-Schrodinger Perturbation Theory

8.6 Degenerate Perturbation Theory

8.7 Dingle-Muller Perturbation Method

The Density Matrix and
Polarization Phenomena

9.1 Introductory Remarks

9.2 Reconsideration of Electrodynamics

9.3 Schrodinger and Heisenberg Pictures

9.4 The Liouville Equation

Quantum Theory: The
General Formalism

10.1 Introductory Remarks

10.2 States and Observables

10.2.1 Uncertainty relation for observables A, B

10.3 One-Dimensional Systems

10.3.1 The translation operator U(a)

10.4 Equations of Motion

10.5 States of Finite Lifetime

10.6 The Interaction Picture

10.7 Time-Dependent Perturbation Theory

10.8 Transitions into the Continuum

10.9 General Time-Dependent Method

The Coulomb Interaction

11.1 Introductory Remarks

11.2 Separation of Variables, Angular Momentum

11.2.1 Separation of variables

11.3 Representation of Rotation Group

11.4 Angular Momentum:Angular Representation

11.5 Radial Equation for Hydrogen-like Atoms

11.6 Discrete Spectrum of the Coulomb Potential

11.6.1 The eigenvalues

11.6.2 Laguerre polynomials: Various definitions in use!

11.6.3 The eigenfunctions

11.6.4 Hydrogen-like atoms in parabolic coordinates

11.7 Continuous Spectrum of Coulomb Potential

11.7.1 The Rutherford formula

11.8 Scattering of a Wave Packet

11.9 Scattering Phase and Partial Waves

Quantum Mechanical
Tunneling

12.1 Introductory Remarks

12.2 Continuity Equation and Conditions

12.3 The Short-Range Delta Potential

12.4 Scattering from a Potential Well

12.5 Degenerate Potentials and Tunneling

Linear Potentials

13.1 Introductory Remarks

13.2 The Freely Falling Particle: Quantization

13.2.1 Superposition of de Broglie waves

13.2.2 Probability distribution at large times

13.3 Stationary States

13.4 The Saddle Point or Stationary Phase Method

Classical Limit and WKB
Method

14.1 Introductory Remarks

14.2 Classical Limit and Hydrodynamics Analogy

14.3 The WKB Method

14.3.1 The approximate WKB solutions

14.3.2 Turning points and matching of WKB solutions

14.3.3 Linear approximation and matching

14.4 Bohr—Sommerfeld—Wilson Quantization

14.5 Further Examples

Power Potentials

15.1 Introductory Remarks

15.2 The Power Potential

15.3 The Three-Dimensional Wave Function

Screened Coulomb Potentials

16.1 Introductory Remarks

16.2 Regge Trajectories

16.3 The 5-Matrix

16.4 The Energy Expansion

16.5 The Sommerfeld—Watson Transform

16.6 Concluding Remarks

Periodic Potentials

17.1 Introductory Remarks

17.2 Cosine Potential: Weak Coupling Solutions

17.2.1 The Floquet exponent

17.2.2 Four types of periodic solutions

17.3 Cosine Potential: Strong Coupling Solutions

17.3.1 Preliminary remarks

17.3.2 The solutions

17.3.3 The eigenvalues

17.3.4 The level splitting

17.4 Elliptic and Ellipsoidal Potentials

17.4.1 Introduction

17.4.2 Solutions and eigenvalues

17.4.3 The level splitting

17.4.4 Reduction to Mathieu functions

17.5 Concluding Remarks

Anharmonic Oscillator
Potentials

18.1 Introductory Remarks

18.2 The Inverted Double Well Potential

18.2.1 Defining the problem

18.2.2 Three pairs of solutions

18.2.3 Matching of solutions

18.2.6 The complex eigenvalues

18.3 The Double Well Potential

18.3.1 Defining the problem

18.3.2 Three pairs of solutions

18.3.3 Matching of solutions

18.3.6 Eigenvalues and level splitting

18.3.7 General Remarks

Singular Potentials

19.1 Introductory Remarks

19.2.1 Preliminary considerations

19.2.4 Notation and properties of solutions

19.2.5 Derivation of the S-matrix

19.2.6 Evaluation of the S-matrix

19.2.7 Calculation of the absorptivity

19.3.1 Preliminary remarks

solutions

19.3.4 The connection formulas

19.3.5 Derivation of the ^-matrix

19.4 Concluding Remarks

Large Order Behaviour of
Perturbation Expansions

20.1 Introductory Remarks

20.2 Cosine Potential: Large Order Behaviour

20.3 Cosine Potential: Complex Eigenvalues

20.3.1 The decaying ground state

20.3.2 Decaying excited states

20.3.3 Relating the level splitting to imaginary E

20.3.4 Recalculation of large order behaviour

20.4 Cosine Potential: A Different Calculation

20.5 Anharmonic Oscillators

20.5.1 The inverted double well

20.5.2 The double well

20.6 General Remarks

The Path Integral Formalism

21.1 Introductory Remarks

21.2 Path Integrals and Green's Functions

21.3 The Green's Function for Potential V=0

21.3.1 Configuration space representation

21.3.2 Momentum space represenation

21.4 Including V in First Order Perturbation

21.5 Rederivation of the Rutherford Formula

21.6 Path Integrals in Dirac's Notation

21.7 Canonical Quantization from Path Integrals

Classical Field Configurations

22.1 Introductory Remarks

22.2 The Constant Classical Field

22.3 Soliton Theories in One Spatial Dimension

22.4 Stability of Classical Configurations

22.5 Bogomol'nyi Equations and Bounds

22.6 The Small Fluctuation Equation

22.7 Existence of Finite-Energy Solutions

22.8 Ginzburg—Landau Vortices

22.9 Introduction to Homotopy Classes

22.10 The Fundamental Homotopy Group

Path Integrals and Instantons

23.1 Introductory Remarks

23.2 Instantons and Anti-Instantons

23.4.2 Evaluation of the functional integral

23.4.3 The Faddeev—Popov constraint insertion

23.4.4 The single instanton contribution

23.4.5 Instanton-anti-instanton contributions

23.5 Concluding Remarks

Path Integrals and Bounces
on a Line

24.1 Introductory Remarks

24.2 The Bounce in a Simple Example

24.3 The Inverted Double Well: The Bounce and
Complex Energy

24.3.1 The bounce solution

24.3.2 The single bounce contribution

24.3.3 Evaluation of the single bounce kernel

24.3.4 Sum over an infinite number of bounces

24.3.5 Comments

24.4 Inverted Double Well: Constant Solutions

24.5 The Cubic Potential and its Complex Energy

Periodic Classical
Configurations

25.1 Introductory Remarks

25.2 The Double Well Theory on a Circle

25.2.1 Periodic configurations

25.2.2 The fluctuation equation

25.2.3 The limit of infinite period

25.3 The Inverted Double Well on a Circle

25.3.1 Periodic configurations

25.3.2 The fluctuation equation

25.3.3 The limit of infinite period

25.4 The Sine—Gordon Theory on a Circle

25.4.1 Periodic configurations

25.4.2 The fluctuation equation

25.5 Conclusions

Path Integrals and Periodic
Classical Configurations

26.1 Introductory Remarks

26.2 The Double Well and Periodic Instantons

26.2.1 Periodic configurations and the double well

26.2.2 Transition amplitude and Feynman kernel

26.2.3 Fluctuations about the periodic instanton

26.2.4 The single periodic instanton contribution

26.2.5 Sum over instanton-anti-instanton pairs

26.3 The Cosine Potential and Periodic Instantons

26.3.1 Periodic configurations and the cosine potential

26.3.2 Transition amplitude and Feynman kernel

26.3.3 The fluctuation equation and its eigenmodes

26.3.4 The single periodic instanton contribution

26.3.5 Sum over instanton—anti-instanton pairs

26.4 The Inverted Double Well and Periodic In-
stantons

26.4.1 Periodic configurations and the inverted double well

26.4.2 Transition amplitude and Feynman kernel

26.4.3 The fluctuation equation and its eigenmodes

26.4.4 The single periodic bounce contribution

26.4.5 Summing over the infinite number of bounces

27.5 Constraints as Generators of a Gauge Group

27.6 Gauge Fixing and Dirac Quantization

27.7 The Formalism of Dirac Quantization

27.7.1 Poisson and Dirac brackets in field theory

27.8 Dirac Quantization of Free Electrodynamics

27.9 Faddeev-Jackiw Canonical Quantization

27.9.1 The method of Faddeev and Jackiw

The Quantum-Classical
Crossover as Phase
Transition

28.1 Introductory Remarks

28.2 Relating Period to Temperature

28.3 Crossover in Previous Cases

28.3.1 The double well and phase transitions