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Spaniards, Sangleys, Mestizos

Spaniards, Sangleys, Mestizos

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Published by Steve B. Salonga
The Roots of the Filipino Nation  Chapter 6 

By Onofre D. Corpus ©1989.

SPANIARDS, SANGLEYS, MESTIZOS  We prohibit and forbid that Spaniards ... may live or reside in the   reducciones and pueblos of the Indios. because it has happened that   some Spaniards who trade, mingle, reside and go among the Indios   are   troublesome   persons,   riotous.   robbers.   gamblers.   vicious.   or   vagrants:   and   in   order   to   escape   injury   the   Indios   leave   their   pueblos..... Ley 21, T
The Roots of the Filipino Nation  Chapter 6 

By Onofre D. Corpus ©1989.

SPANIARDS, SANGLEYS, MESTIZOS  We prohibit and forbid that Spaniards ... may live or reside in the   reducciones and pueblos of the Indios. because it has happened that   some Spaniards who trade, mingle, reside and go among the Indios   are   troublesome   persons,   riotous.   robbers.   gamblers.   vicious.   or   vagrants:   and   in   order   to   escape   injury   the   Indios   leave   their   pueblos..... Ley 21, T

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The Roots of the Filipino Nation
By Onofre D. Corpus
©
1989.Chapter 6SPANIARDS, SANGLEYS, MESTIZOS
We prohibit and forbid that Spaniards ... may live or reside in thereducciones and pueblos of the Indios. because it has happened that some Spaniards who trade, mingle, reside and go among the Indiosare troublesome persons, riotous. robbers. gamblers. vicious. or vagrants: and in order to escape injury the Indios leave their  pueblos..... Ley 21, Titulo 3, Libro VI, Recopilaci
ó
n promulgated 1563,1578, 1581, 1589, 1600, 1646.The Chinese have taken over all of the retail trade. because their system of helping each other exclusively. forming themselves into adistinct guild similar to the practice of the Jews, with whom they havemuch in common in their social and business principles, gives themgreat advantages over the natives and Spaniards. - From a report of the royal officials in Filipinas. (1830)The mestizos are acquiring all the lands in Filipinas, and if the Audiencia does not take measures to prevent this abuse. in no time thisclever race will own the entire islands, from which will arise graveconsequences. - Martinez de Zuniga (1800)
Our principal story so far has been that of the natives. Life in the archipelago,whether joyful or bleak, light or depressing, primitive or progressive, was their life,although partly defined by the transient invaders. The invaders caused death andhardship and brought change; but all that they caused and all the change that theywrought were absorbed into the vast body of native life and culture. Inevitably, acrossthe centuries, the story of some non-native peoples became part of the story of theFilipinos, as members of other racial groups in the islands joined the natives to form andshare a common life and future.We will note in this Chapter that the Chinese mestizos, a completely new class of people in the archipelago, blended almost immediately into native society and the landof their native mothers. Indeed the cause of the secular priests during the 1770s andcontinuously thereafter until the Revolution was the common cause of the native andChinese mestizo priests. When members of the other racial groups would see noseparate political future for themselves and decide to identify with the awakening massof natives and mestizos, such as happened by the 1860s, their joint story became thestory of the Filipino people.1
 
The Roots of the Filipino Nation
By Onofre D. Corpus
©
1989.The population figures during the Spanish colonial era began as estimates of thetribute-paying population. This population was composed of the colonized natives, andthe Chinese residents; the latter came in increasing numbers after 1571. The Spanishpopulation reports did not include the Muslims; and people called "independent tribes"in the tributary population. The latter were the unconquered mountain communities;they and the Muslims were also referred to as
infieles
or infidels. Naturally theSpaniards did not pay tribute, and so they too did not appear in the early populationreports.Although the Chinese paid tribute like the natives (their tribute rate was muchhigher), they came from such a superior and ancient civilization that they did notidentify with the latter.As time passed, other groups came to be registered in the tributary populationreports or estimates. One such group was composed of the swarthy mountain people;they paid the tribute, sometimes only the
reconocimiento de vasallaje.
The important new group was the
mestizos.
The Franciscan friar San Antonioobserved in 1738: “The archipelago today, especially the Tagalog provinces, is full of another race of rnestizos. They were not here in the period of the
discubrimiento
. Wecall them '
mestizos de Sangley
,' the offspring of native women and Chinese men.” Themestizos appeared in the Spanish population reports as a major category for the firsttime after 1750. Their Chinese fathers had to convert to Christianity, often forconvenience in order to enjoy greater security and, much more important, to marrynative women. Their mestizo offspring easily integrated into the society of their mothersand identified themselves with their native cousins.The term "mestizo" until well into the nineteenth century was used only to refer toChinese mestizos and did not include the offspring of Spanish fathers and Filipinamothers. This was because there were too few Spaniards in Filipinas to begin with; theywere expected to reside in the Spanish towns and cities and prohibited from living in thenative pueblos.The mestizos grew in numbers progressively. In the 1760 population estimates therewere a reported 36,700; in 1791 there were a reported 66,917; in 1822 96,135; and in1844 270,000 (although a 1845 report had only 180,000). In comparison, there wereonly a reported 11,254 Spanish mestizos in 1822. (the 1845 report was on theconservative side, at only 8,584).The conventional Spanish population estimates were basically approximations(explained in the Appendix), but are adequate for the purpose of establishing trends. In1846 the Frenchman Mallat had estimates based on the regime's reports. His figuresincluded (not the total population of the archipelago):2
 
The Roots of the Filipino Nation
By Onofre D. Corpus
©
1989.Natives 3,700,000Chinese mestizos 240,000Spanish mestizos 20,000Chinese 10,000Spaniards born in Filipinas 3,500Spaniards born in Europe 1,500The figures indicate the relative racial contributions to the Filipino nation that wouldultimately emerge (but still not inclusive of the Muslims). The natives would bedominant. The mestizos would' be disproportionately important, the Chinese mestizosbeing more so than the Spanish mestizos. The Spaniards ,who would cast their lot withthe Filipino nation would be a small minority.1The SpaniardsTo the native Filipinos every Spaniard was called "Castila." This was originallybecause Filipinas was officially the New Kingdom of Castilla; and this in turn wasbecause the Spaniards who had effected the conquest of much of the archipelago weremen in the service of the Spanish kingdom of Castilla, whose king was Felipe II.But the terms "Castila" or "Espanol" did not include all Spaniards in Filipinas. TheSpanish clergy was excluded. During most of the Spanish era the colonial documents(laws and government orders) as well as the friar chronicles did not refer to the clergy asSpaniards. The laws distinguished between the clergy and the lay Spaniards. The friarsand priests were referred to as ecclesiastical persons, exempt persons, regulars orseculars, fathers or ministers of the doctrine, but not as Spaniards. The Recopilaci
ó
n haddifferent laws for the lay Spaniards and for the clergy. For instance, it banned"Spaniards" from residing in the pueblos, but not the clergy. It was the same in thedocuments of the regime in Manila. Official reports would estimate the population of Spaniards in Filipinas; these estimates did not include the friars and curates.The practice went both ways. In the chronicles of the friar orders references toSpaniards, often denigratory, ordinarily did not include the clergy. For instance, a friarhistory or account might severely criticize "the Spaniards," but this would not includethe churchmen. The following paragraphs therefore refer primarily to the lay Spaniards.The influence of the Spaniards as individuals on life in the pueblos was negligible.There were very few of them in Filipinas as a whole. They had to live in the Spanishcities and towns unless they were officials posted in the provinces. Most of themnaturally settled in Manila. The next largest settlement of Spaniards was to have beenCebu, but it could attract only a few citizens or
vecinos
. By 1750 all the Spanishresidents of Cebu were not even enough to constitute the city council. The other Spanish3

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