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Eastern Arc Mountains and Coastal Forests of Tanzania and Kenya

Eastern Arc Mountains and Coastal Forests of Tanzania and Kenya

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Published by: Birdlife International Pacific Partnership on Sep 10, 2010
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ECOSYSTEM PROFILE
EASTERN ARC MOUNTAINS &COASTAL FORESTS OF TANZANIA & KENYA
Final versionJuly 31, 2003
(updated: march 2005)
 
ii
 
Prepared by:
Conservation InternationalInternational Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology
In collaboration with:
 Nature KenyaWildlife Conservation Society of Tanzania
With the technical support of:
Centre for Applied Biodiversity Science - Conservation InternationalEast African Herbarium National Museums of KenyaMissouri Botanical GardenTanzania Forest Conservation GroupZoology Department, University of Dar es SalaamWWF Eastern Africa Regional Programme OfficeWWF United States
And a special team for this ecosystem profile:
 Neil BurgessTom ButynskiIan GordonQuentin LukePeter SumbiJohn Watkin
Assisted by experts and contributors:
KENYA
Barrow
Edmund
Gakahu
Chris
 Githitho
Anthony
Kabii
Tom
 Kabugi
Hewson
 Kanga
Erustus
 Matiku
Paul
Mbora
David
Mugo
Robinson
Ndugire
 Naftali
 Odhiambo
Peter 
 Thompson
Hazell
 Wandago
Ben
TANZANIA
Baldus
Rolf D
 
Bhukoli
Alice
Doggart
 Nike
 Howlett
David
 Hewawasam
Indu
Hamdan
Sheha Idrissa
 Howell
Kim
Kajuni
A R 
Kilahama
Felician
 Kafumu
George R 
 Kimbwereza
Elly D
Lejora
Inyasi A.V.
 Lulandala
Luther 
Mallya
Felix
Mariki
Stephen
Masayanyika
Sammy
 Mathias
Lema
Milledge
Simon
 Mlowe
Edward
Mpemba
Erastp
Msuya
Charles
Mungaya
Elias
 Mwasumbi
Leonard
 Salehe
John
Stodsrod
Jan Erik 
 Tapper
Elizabeth
 Offninga
Esther 
Perkin
Andrew
Verberkmoes
Anne Marie
Ward
Jessica
 
BELGIUM
Lens
Luc
U
Burgess
 Neil
 
USA
Brooks
Thomas
Gereau
Roy
Langhammer
Penny
 Ocker
Donnell
Sebunya
Kaddu
Struhsaker
Tom
 
Wieczkowski
Julie
 
Editing assistance by Ian Gordon, International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology
 
iv
CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION.....................................................................................................................................................................5
 
THE ECOSYSTEM PROFILE............................................................................................................................................5
 
BACKGROUND......................................................................................................................................................................6
 
Geography of the Hotspot.........................................................................................7
 
The Eastern Arc Mountains......................................................................................8
 
The East African Coastal Forest Mosaic................................................................10
 
BIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE........................................................................................................................................11
 
Biodiversity in the Eastern Arc Mountains..............................................................11
 
Biodiversity in the Coastal Forests.........................................................................12
 
Levels of Protection................................................................................................13
 
CONSERVATION OUTCOMES...................................................................................................................................16
 
Overview of Conservation Outcomes.....................................................................17
 
Species Outcomes..................................................................................................18
 
Site Outcomes........................................................................................................19
 
SOCIOECONOMIC FEATURES..................................................................................................................................25
 
Institutional Framework...........................................................................................25
 
Policy and Legislation.............................................................................................29
 
Economic Situation.................................................................................................34
 
Infrastructure and Regional Development..............................................................36
 
Demography and Social Trends.............................................................................37
 
SYNOPSIS OF CURRENT THREATS.......................................................................................................................38
 
Levels of Threat......................................................................................................39
 
Main Threats...........................................................................................................39
 
Agriculture...............................................................................................................40
 
Commercial Timber Extraction...............................................................................42
 
Mining.....................................................................................................................43
 
Fires........................................................................................................................43
 
Ranking of Threats in Tanzania..............................................................................44
 
Analysis of Root Causes.........................................................................................45
 
SYNOPSIS OF CURRENT INVESTMENT...............................................................................................................48
 
Levels of Funding...................................................................................................48
 
Types of Project Interventions................................................................................49
 
Numbers of IBAs with Project Interventions...........................................................49
 
Spread of Conservation Attention Across Different IBAs........................................50
 
Funding Allocation Against Biological Priority.........................................................50
 
CEPF NICHE FOR INVESTMENT................................................................................................................................52
 
CEPF INVESTMENT STRATEGY AND PRIORITIES..........................................................................................54
 
Program Focus.......................................................................................................54
 
Strategic Directions.................................................................................................54
 
SUSTAINABILITY...............................................................................................................................................................62
 
CONCLUSION......................................................................................................................................................................63
 
ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THE TEXT....................................................................................................................64
 
REFERENCES.....................................................................................................................................................................66
 
APPENDICES.......................................................................................................................................................................71
 

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