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Table Of Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction
1.2 Artificial Life and Artificial Societies
1.3 A Note on Previous Publications
Chapter 2 The Evolution of Communication and Language
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Language and Communication
2.2.1 Features of Language
2.3 The Evolution of Communication
2.4 The Biological Evolution of Language
2.4.1 Evidence for the Innateness of Language
2.4.2 Evolution of Linguistic Ability
2.4.3 Questioning the Innate Linguistic Ability
2.4.4 Why and How? Just So Stories and Grand Theories
2.5 The Cultural Evolution of Languages
2.5.1 Language Change
2.5.2 Explanations of Language Change
2.5.3 Language Change and Evolutionary Theory
2.5.4 Cultural Evolution
2.5.5 Language Ecology and Species
2.5.6 Neutral Evolution
2.5.7 Co-evolution of Languages and Man
3.1 The Artificial Life Approach
3.1.2 Emergence
3.1.3 Life-Like
3.2 Methodologies for Applying Artificial Life
3.2.1 Science without method?
3.3 Improved Methodologies and Practices
3.3.1 A Methodology Emerges
3.3.2 Not Just Biology
3.3.3 ALife for Novel Models and Theories
3.4 ALife in Practice
3.4.1 ALife Research vs ‘Real’ Research
3.4.2 Principles of ALife Model Building
3.4.3 Adapting Methods
3.4.4 Implementing an ALife model
3.5 Experimentation
3.5.1 Validation
3.5.3 The (Un-)Importance of Surprise
3.6 Explanation
3.6.1 Model and Theory
3.6.2 Validation of Results
3.7 Limitations Of Artificial Life
3.7.1 ALife vs. Mathematical Models
3.7.2 ALife Models as Proof
3.7.3 ALife Models as Evidence
3.7.4 ALife and Quantitative Results
3.8 ALife and the Evolution of Language
3.8.1 ALife and the Biological Evolution of Language
3.8.2 ALife and the Cultural Evolution of Languages
3.8.3 Coevolution of Language Ability and Languages
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Computational Models of Language Learning Populations
4.2.1 Evolution of Language Ability
4.3 Modelling Human Language
4.4 An Artificial Neural-Network Based Language Agent
4.5 Evaluating Communication in Artificial Populations
4.6 Modelling Language-Physiology Coevolution
4.7.1 Signal Production
4.7.2 Signal Interpretation
4.7.4 A Note on Terminology
4.7.5 Representational Capacity
4.7.6 A Bias for Language Learning
4.7.7 The Individual Language Agent – 1
4.7.8 The Individual Language Agent – 2
4.8 Experiment 1: Language Negotiation
4.8.1 Emergence of a Language Bias
4.8.2 Success of Language Negotiation
4.8.3 Interpreting the Results
4.9 Experiment 2: Spatially Arranged Populations
4.9.1 Emergence of Dialects
4.10 Conclusion
Chapter 5 Modelling the Biological Evolution of Language
5.1 The Evolution and Emergence of Language
5.2 Modelling the Biological Evolution of Language Ability
5.2.1 Heterogeneous Language Abilities
5.2.2 Comprehension Leads Production
5.2.3 Population Generations and Replacement
5.2.3.1 Genetic Representation and Reproduction
5.2.3.2 Selection, Mating and Replacement
5.2.3.3 Crossover and Mutation
5.3 Modelling Language-Physiology Coevolution, Part I
5.3.1 Crossover and Mutation
5.3.2 Parameters and Settings
5.3.3 Discontinuous Evolution of Signalling Ability
5.4 Modelling Language-Physiology Coevolution, Part II
5.4.1 Crossover and Mutation
5.4.2 Parameters and Settings
5.4.3 Continuous Evolution of Signalling Ability
5.5 The Effect of Neighbourhood Size
5.5.1 Parameters and Settings
5.5.2 The Effect of Large Neighbourhoods
5.6 Coevolution with a Costly Language Ability
5.6.1 Parameters and Settings
5.6.2 Spatial Selection and Costly Language Ability
5.7.1 Continuous versus Discontinuous Evolution of Language
5.7.2 Spatial Selection
5.7.3 Redundancy and Linguistic Ability
5.7.4 Investigating The Adaptive Benefits of Language
5.7.5 Embodied Communication
5.7.6 Limitations and Shortcomings
6.1 Introduction
6.2 An Initial Test
6.3 Human Linguistic Diversity
6.3.1 Patterns of Diversity
6.3.2 Linguistic Boundaries
6.4 Analytical Models of Linguistic Diversity
6.4.1 The Niyogi-Berwick Model
6.4.2 Criticism of the Niyogi-Berwick Model
6.4.3 The Cavalli-Sforza and Feldman Models
6.4.4 Summary of Analytical Models
6.6.2.1 Visualisation
6.6.2.2 Experimental Results
6.6.2.3 Measuring Diversity
6.6.3 The Effect of Neighbourhood Size
6.6.4.1 Maintaining Diversity
6.6.4.2 Human linguistic diversity: A comparison
6.7 Experiment 2: Diversity from Homogeneity
6.7.1 Experimental Setup
6.7.1.1 Noisy Learning
6.7.1.2 Innate Bias
6.7.3 Discussion
7.1 Artificial Life and Micro-Simulation Models of Linguistic Diversity
7.1.1 Functional Requirements for Diversity
7.1.2 Other Models of the Evolution of Linguistic Diversity
7.1.3 Related Models
7.2 Dialect in an Agent Based Model of Emergent Phonology
7.2.1 de Boer’s Model of Emergent Phonology
7.2.2 Experimental Setup
7.3.4.2 Non-Uniformitarianism
7.3.4.3 Directed Change in Sound Systems
7.3.5 Neutral Change in a Relativistic, Non-Uniformitarian World
7.3.5.1 Neutral Change In Sound Systems
7.3.5.2 Neutral Networks in Language Evolution
7.3.5.3 Neutral and Adaptive Evolution
7.4 A Modified-Neutral Theory of Linguistic Evolution
7.5 Conclusions
Chapter 8 Conclusions
8.1 Artificial Life and the Evolution of Language
8.2 Methodological Approaches
8.3 Redundancy in Language Evolution
8.4 Language Change and Neutral Evolution
8.5 Future Directions
References
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Published by: jongung on Sep 11, 2010
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10/31/2011

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