linear time history analyses are used forcomparing the behaviours of the structures underrecorded earthquake ground motions.Time history analysis are performed using the samesoftware, SAP2000, using the implicit integrationmethod Hilbet
Taylor method, assuggested in SAP2000 help files, in which theequation of motion at a time step is modified by theinclusion of a numerical damping parameter
whichtakes a value between 0 and
α is set to zero, the method becomes same withthe Newmark implicit scheme wih β = 1/4 and γ =
As α takes negative values, it tends to dampen the
higher modes of vibration, improving convergence atthe cost of a small loss of accuracy.
Analyses are performed with α = 0 for frames without
friction devices and -0.05 is used for structuresequipped with friction devices, which experienced
convergence problems with α = 0, due to very small
mass at the intersection of the link elements, whichended up in high frequency modes.For time history analysis, a step size of 0.003 secondsis used. Time history analysis continues from thecombination Dead + 0.24 Live.
sed material has a self weight of 25 kN / m
Young’s modulus of 30000 N / mm
.Rigid floor diaphragm constraints are applied to eachlevel, to take into account the stiffness of the slab,making all nodes lie at the same horizontal plane.Joints 1, 5, 9 and 13 are fixed to the base and allother connections are rigid connections as it would bein a RC structure.Mass is taken into account automatically by SAPwith the sum of self weight of the elements, actingdead loads and 24% of the acting live loads.Beam and column elements are assumed to be in theelastic zone, except at defined hinge locations, alllocated at 5% of the length of the element from eachend.M3 types of hinges are applied to beams and P
M3interacting hinges are applied to columns.Hinges are assumed to resist 10% more of the yieldvalue assigned with a rotation of 0.015 rad. After thispoint, the moment capacity of the hinge drops to 20%of the yield value, and after a rotation of 0.025 rad.moment capacity drops to zero.
3.3 Modelling of Friction Devices
Frame with the dissipater located between the bracesand the upper slab is used through this study.Friction devices are modelled using link elements.Based on the behaviour of friction devices, an elastic
perfectly plastic element is used.The plasticity model that was assigned to the frictiondevice is based on the hysteretic behaviour proposedby Wen.Braces, that the friction devices are connected to,assume not to fail under compression thereforebuckling is not considered.Brace member materials have a stiffness value of 210000 N / mm
which is a common value for steelused in practice.
3.3 Design of Structures
Two 3 storey reinforced concrete frame structureswere chosen and designed for the purpose of thisstudy.The chosen structures have the same properties withan only exception of one being designed to Eurocode8 with a behaviour factor of 3 (Structure A), whereasthe second structure designed with a behaviour factorof 6 (Structure B).Both frame structures have floor height of 4 metersand 3 spans of 6.5m. Also it is assumed that theframe repeats itself at every 6.5 meters.For design purposes, response spectrum is chosen tobe Type 1 (for moderate or large events), soil type C(dense sand or gravel, or stiff clay), scaled to a peak ground acceleration of 4 m/s
.Assumed dead loads are to be self weight of thestructural elements plus 0.5 kN/m
on slabs, and alive load of 2.5 kN/m
. Mass for the purpose of theresponse spectrum analysis and time history analysisis taken as 0.24 × Live Loads + 1 × Dead Loads.
3.3 Design of Retrofitted Structure
It is clear that the most important value that has to beconsidered is the yield value of the friction device forincreasing the capacity of the structure againstseismic loading. However, the bracing system whichis connected to the friction device has to be designedas well.So it is evident that there are 2 main parameters thathave to be decided on, for every individual frictiondevice.Which means, in the case of this study, due to thestructure that is considered is a 3 floor structure;there will be 6 independent values that have to bedecided.It is obvious that, these parameters will affect theseismic capacity increase of the frame highly, whichalso depends on the frames individual characteristics.Proposed placement of the friction devices can beseen in Figure 2.