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Conference Paper

Conference Paper

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Published by fatabass
Conference Paper, Friction Devices, Friction Dampers, Reinforced Concrete Structures, Passive Control
Conference Paper, Friction Devices, Friction Dampers, Reinforced Concrete Structures, Passive Control

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Published by: fatabass on Sep 11, 2010
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02/20/2011

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Sixteenth Postgraduate Student Conference on
MSc Dissertations 2009-10
Department of Civil & Structural Engineering, University of Sheffield, 2010
Seismic Performance Of Reinforced Concrete Buildings With FrictionDevices
 Koray Tugay
Candidate MSc(Eng) Structural Engineering
ABSTRACT
Friction devices offer an effective solution for seismic rehabilitation for structures byenergy dissipating capabilities.In this study, the effectiveness of friction devices are checked by numerical analysis, using thecommercially available software SAP2000 on a 3 storey reinforced concrete frame structure by non
 – 
 linear time history analysis using 4 different ground motions, namely El
 – 
Centro, Kobe, Northridge andthe Mexico, 3 of them being modified to hit the structure as strong as possible in the means of frequency content.The monitored results are maximum inter
 – 
storey drifts at any time and any floor level, structuraldamage, maximum top floor displacements and top floor displacement time history graphs.It is shown that, a structure designed with a behaviour factor of 6, retrofitted with friction devicesperformed better compared to a structure designed with a behaviour factor of 3 and the optimum yieldforce distribution is a characteristic that depends on the structure, however lies in a range.
1 INTRODUCTION
In January 12, 2010, an estimated 230.000 of peoplehave lost their lives, in the Haiti earthquake, which isthe 6th earthquake ranked by Loss of Life.When deadliest natural disasters are investigated,earthquakes take 6 places in the top 10 of the list, forthe past century.When the economical prospects and survived butinjured people are considered, there is no doubt that,earthquakes are one of the most hazardous of thenatural disasters, and cause big losses in human lifeand economy.But actually, earthquakes are not the reason forpeople to lose their lives. The structures that are notdesigned properly are most likely to be the reason forpeople to lose their lives and the economicalsufferings.We do not have the technology to preventearthquakes yet, but with new design methods andapproaches and a better understanding of behavioursof materials, structures can be built to resist even themost intensive earthquakes.When an earthquake occurs, certain amount of energyis fed to the structure. If this energy can be dissipatedbefore being fed to the structure, obviously thestructure will need to resist lower lateral forces.This study focuses on one of these devices, frictiondevices, which work with this logic where the inputenergy is dissipated with friction forces.
2 STRUCTURAL CONTROL
 Harsh ground motions, as in earthquakes, inducelateral forces on structures, causing them to swingwith amplitude proportional to the energy fed in. Thisenergy depends on several properties, including:properties of the structure such as the mass and thenatural frequency and the nature of the earthquakeand is never easy to estimate or to calculate.This energy can be stored in the structural elementswith elastic strain up to a certain level. However,designing a structure to resist an earthquake only withelastic deformations would end up with huge sectionsand would be uneconomical.Because of these reasons, the latest approach inearthquake resistant design relies on energydissipating ability of the structural elements withplastic deformations, which ends in economicalsolutions, however leaving permanent damage in theelements.
 
 The energy that is fed to the structure can also bereduced by various structural control systems, ratherthan the structural elements. These systems can be
either “passive” or “active”.
Active control systems have the capability to monitorthe input signals, such as ground motions, and tooptimize the properties for the best output in seconds.On the other hand, passive control systems consist of pre
 – 
determined properties that cannot adjust oroptimize themselves for different input values.The idea is not to increase the capacity of the existingstructure, but rather to decrease the demand indifferent ways, leaving the structure with a lessamount of energy to deal with, which decreases therisk of a total collapse in most severe earthquakes ordecreases the damage in less severe ground motions.
2.1 Passive Structural Control
There are several different types of passive controldevices that have been under development since mid
 – 
 
1970’s with a rapid increase in implementations,
especially in U.S.A and Japan, starting in mid
 – 
 
1990’s.
 Passive control devices that are mentioned can bedivided into 3 groups depending on how they work :base isolation systems, energy dissipating devicesand mass dampers
2.2 Friction Devices
Friction devices belong to energy dissipating devicescategory and as the name suggests, use the frictionforces to dissipate energy.The friction device consists of two steel casing and asliding piece located between the casings. Theinterface between the inner and outer pieces in facedwith a high brake pad material and the normal forceis adjusted by pre - stressed bolts. Friction devicescan be inserted in structure in differentconfigurations. Commonly used configurations canbe seen in figure 1.Figure 1 - Friction Devices SetupsAdvantages of friction devices can be summarized as:
 
High energy absorbing ability.
 
Adjustable friction force through pre-stressing.
 
Behaviour not affected by number of cycles,high energy dissipation at every cycle.
 
Unlimited capacity of energy dissipation.
 
Can be re - used after the earthquake.
 
No fatigue effects.As mentioned, friction devices dissipate energy atevery cycle, when the lateral force is higher than thefriction force. By definition from principles of dryfriction, friction devices show a rectangularhysteresis loops during excitation. It is obvious that,during a ground motion, the response of the structurewill depend on the stiffness of the braces and theadjusted slippage load.The main goal with retrofitting structures withfriction devices is to dissipate the energy that is inputby the earthquake rather than making the framestructure to act as a braced frame.High slippage loads will lock the friction devices, asthe lateral force will never be higher than the adjustedload, and the frame will act as a braced frame.On the other hand, low slippage loads will dissipateenergy; however the dissipated energy will be verylow due to this value, and again will be useless.These facts conclude that the slippage load must beadjusted to a certain value for best results. Severalstudies showed that, this value lies between a range,depending on the properties of the structure that willbe discussed later. When the slippage load is adjustedfor an optimum value, the stiffness of the bracing hasalmost no effect on the output, therefore for aneconomical solution, a bracing system that is enoughto take the loads transferred from friction devices andnot to buckle under compression forces should bechosen.Mualla and Belev did numerical analysis to show theeffect of the stiffness of the bracing on a structureequipped with Friction Devices and concluded that
“A change in brace stiffness leads to shifting the period of vibration and damping ratio”.
 
3 MODELLING & METHODOLOGY3.1 Methodology
All the modelling and analysis is done usingcommercially available software SAP2000.For Modal Analysis Eigen Vectors have been usedwhich is used in Response Spectrum Analysis. 5% of damping is assumed for the structure.
 
 Non
 – 
linear time history analyses are used forcomparing the behaviours of the structures underrecorded earthquake ground motions.Time history analysis are performed using the samesoftware, SAP2000, using the implicit integrationmethod Hilbet
 – 
Hughes
 – 
Taylor method, assuggested in SAP2000 help files, in which theequation of motion at a time step is modified by theinclusion of a numerical damping parameter
α
whichtakes a value between 0 and
 – 
1/3.When
α is set to zero, the method becomes same withthe Newmark implicit scheme wih β = 1/4 and γ =
1/2.
As α takes negative values, it tends to dampen the
higher modes of vibration, improving convergence atthe cost of a small loss of accuracy.
Analyses are performed with α = 0 for frames without
friction devices and -0.05 is used for structuresequipped with friction devices, which experienced
convergence problems with α = 0, due to very small
mass at the intersection of the link elements, whichended up in high frequency modes.For time history analysis, a step size of 0.003 secondsis used. Time history analysis continues from thecombination Dead + 0.24 Live.
3.2 MODELLING
sed material has a self weight of 25 kN / m
3
and
Young’s modulus of 30000 N / mm
2
.Rigid floor diaphragm constraints are applied to eachlevel, to take into account the stiffness of the slab,making all nodes lie at the same horizontal plane.Joints 1, 5, 9 and 13 are fixed to the base and allother connections are rigid connections as it would bein a RC structure.Mass is taken into account automatically by SAPwith the sum of self weight of the elements, actingdead loads and 24% of the acting live loads.Beam and column elements are assumed to be in theelastic zone, except at defined hinge locations, alllocated at 5% of the length of the element from eachend.M3 types of hinges are applied to beams and P
 – 
M3interacting hinges are applied to columns.Hinges are assumed to resist 10% more of the yieldvalue assigned with a rotation of 0.015 rad. After thispoint, the moment capacity of the hinge drops to 20%of the yield value, and after a rotation of 0.025 rad.moment capacity drops to zero.
3.3 Modelling of Friction Devices
Frame with the dissipater located between the bracesand the upper slab is used through this study.Friction devices are modelled using link elements.Based on the behaviour of friction devices, an elastic
 – 
perfectly plastic element is used.The plasticity model that was assigned to the frictiondevice is based on the hysteretic behaviour proposedby Wen.Braces, that the friction devices are connected to,assume not to fail under compression thereforebuckling is not considered.Brace member materials have a stiffness value of 210000 N / mm
2
which is a common value for steelused in practice.
3.3 Design of Structures
Two 3 storey reinforced concrete frame structureswere chosen and designed for the purpose of thisstudy.The chosen structures have the same properties withan only exception of one being designed to Eurocode8 with a behaviour factor of 3 (Structure A), whereasthe second structure designed with a behaviour factorof 6 (Structure B).Both frame structures have floor height of 4 metersand 3 spans of 6.5m. Also it is assumed that theframe repeats itself at every 6.5 meters.For design purposes, response spectrum is chosen tobe Type 1 (for moderate or large events), soil type C(dense sand or gravel, or stiff clay), scaled to a peak ground acceleration of 4 m/s
2
.Assumed dead loads are to be self weight of thestructural elements plus 0.5 kN/m
2
on slabs, and alive load of 2.5 kN/m
2
. Mass for the purpose of theresponse spectrum analysis and time history analysisis taken as 0.24 × Live Loads + 1 × Dead Loads.
3.3 Design of Retrofitted Structure
It is clear that the most important value that has to beconsidered is the yield value of the friction device forincreasing the capacity of the structure againstseismic loading. However, the bracing system whichis connected to the friction device has to be designedas well.So it is evident that there are 2 main parameters thathave to be decided on, for every individual frictiondevice.Which means, in the case of this study, due to thestructure that is considered is a 3 floor structure;there will be 6 independent values that have to bedecided.It is obvious that, these parameters will affect theseismic capacity increase of the frame highly, whichalso depends on the frames individual characteristics.Proposed placement of the friction devices can beseen in Figure 2.

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