Ecology and Fisheries/10______________________________________________________________________________
The Ocean, which is called the ‘Mother of origin of life’, is also the source of structurally uniquenatural products that are mainly accumulated in living organisms. Several of these compoundshow pharmacological activities and are helpful for the invention and discovery of bioactivecompound, primarily for deadly diseases like cancer, acquire immuno-deficiency syndrome, etc.The lives saving drugs are mainly found abundantly in microorganisms, algae and invertebratesand vertebrates. Modern technologies have opened vast areas of research for the extraction of biomedical compounds from ocean and seas to treat the deadly diseases.For more than two decades, there has been an ongoing quest to discover new drugs fromthe sea. Most efforts have been directed towards chemical studies of marine invertebrates.Although these studies have indeed proven that marine invertebrates are an important source of new biomedical leads, a fact well demonstrated by the number of compounds currently in clinicaltrails, it has proven notoriously difficult to obtain adequate, reliable supplies of these compoundfrom nature. Because of these problems, anew avenue of study focusing on marinemicroorganisms has been gaining considerable attention. At first sight thus, the expectableenormous biodiversity of marine microorganisms might have been the reason for the interest intheir study. Although marine microorganisms are not well defined taxonomically, preliminarystudies indicate that the wealth of microbial diversity in the world’s oceans, make this a promising frontier for the discovery of new medicines.Screening of marine bacteria isolated from the surface of marine algae and invertebrateshas shown that a high percentage produce antimicrobial metabolites. In addition, bacteria in biofilms formed on the surface of marine organisms have been documented to contain a high proportion of antibiotic producing bacteria than some other marine environment. Marineepiphytic bacteria, associated with nutrient rich algal surfaces and invertebrates, have also beenshown to produce antibacterial secondary metabolites, which inhibit the settlement of potentialcompetitors.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
: The deep-sea sediment
and water sample were collected from the Karwar region, west coast of India at a depth of 20 meter. (Lat. 14
45.46'N. Long. 074
02.84'E). Thesamples were brought to the laboratory in aseptic condition. Than the microorganisms werecultivated on Zobell Marine Agar 2216, than it was sub cultured on Modified Nutrient agar (MNA).
Screening of Isolates for antimicrobial activity:
The screening method consists of two steps: primary screening and secondary screening. In primary screening the antimicrobial activity of pure isolates was determined perpendicular streak method on Nutrient agar (NA) (Egorov, 1985).The test organisms used were;
aureus, E.coli, Klebsiella
Secondary screening was performed by Agar well diffusion method against the standard testorganisms
aureus, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus subtilis
Effect of Sugar and NaCl on growth of Isolates:
The effect of slow and rapidly metabolizedsugar was tested by replacing starch and glucose by an equivalent amount of glucose, maltose andlactose. As NaCl is the major constituent of seawater, a kinetic study of growth and antibiotic production with varying concentration of this salt added to Production medium was done asshown in fig (1). The effect of composition of the water used for cultivation on growth and