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Gaseous Exchange

Gaseous Exchange

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Published by: Datuk Seri Izzul Syahmi on Sep 12, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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11/12/2012

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1
Gaseous Exchange in human
Breathing is normally involuntary and automatic but can come under voluntarycontrol. Neurons in the medulla of the brain regulate normal quite breathing.Respiration adjusts itself to changing requirement of the body for oxygen. A normalhuman a 12-15 times a minute, about 500ml of air per breath or 6-8L/min is inspired andexpired. The air (atmosphere) around us has a total pressure of 760 mmHg (1atmosphere of pressure). Air is made up of 21% oxygen, 78% nitrogen and small quantities of CO
2
, argonand helium. In humans and mammals, respiratory gas exchange or ventilation is carriedout by mechanisms of the heart and lungs. The blood is subjected to a transient electricfield (QRS waves of the EKG) in the heart, which dissociates molecules of differentcharge. The electric field exposure and subsequent damped driven oscillation dissociategas from hemoglobin, primarily CO
2
, but more important, BPG, which has a higher affinity for hemoglobin than does oxygen, due in part to its opposite charge.Completely-dissociated hemoglobin (which will even effervesce if the electric fieldis too strong ² the reason defibrillation joules are limited, to avoid bubble emboli thatmay clog vessels in the lung) enters the lung in red blood cells ready to be oxygenated.Convection occurs over the majority of the transport pathway. Diffusion occursonly over very short distances. The primary force applied in the respiratory tract issupplied by atmospheric pressure. Total atmospheric pressure at sea level is 760mmHg (101 kPa), with oxygen (O
2
) providing a partial pressure (
 p
O
2
) of 160 mmHg(21 kPa), 21% by volume, at the entrance of the nares, a partial pressure of 150 mmHg(20 kPa) in the trachea due to the effect of partial pressure of water vapor, and anestimated
 p
O
2
of 100 mmHg (13 kPa) in the alveoli sac, pressure drop due toconduction loss as oxygen travels along the transport passageway. Atmospheric pressure decreases as altitude increases, making effectivebreathing more difficult at higher altitudes. Higher BPG levels in the blood are also seenat higher elevations, as well.
 
2
 
T
he Respiratory System
STRUCTURE FUNCTION
nose
/
nasal
c
avity
w
arms,
 
moistens,
& f 
ilters
 
air
 
as
 
it
 
is
 
inhaled
 p
harynx
(
throat)
p
assage
w
ay
or
 
air,
 
leads
 
to
 
tra
c
hea
 
larynx
 
the
 
voi
c
e
b
ox,
w
here
 
vo
c
al
c
hords
 
are
 
lo
c
ated
 
tra
c
hea
(w
ind
p
i
p
e)
k
ee
p
s
 
the
w
ind
p
i
p
e
"
o
p
en
"
tra
c
hea
 
is
 
lined
w
ith
ine
 
hairs
c
alled
 
cilia
w
hi
c
h
ilter
 
air
b
e
ore
 
it
 
rea
c
hes
 
the
 
lungs
 b
ron
c
hi
 
t
w
o
b
ran
c
hes
 
at
 
the
 
end
 
o
the
 
tra
c
hea,
 
ea
c
h
 
lead
 
to
 
a
 
lung
 b
ron
c
hioles
 
a
 
net
w
or
k
o
smaller
b
ran
c
hes
 
leading
rom
 
the
b
ron
c
hi
 
into
 
the
 
lung
 
tissue
&
ultimately
 
to
 
air
 
sa
c
s
 
alveoli
 
the
un
c
tional
 
res
p
iratory
 
units
 
in
 
the
 
lung
w
here
 
gases
 
are
 
ex
c
hanged
 
 
3
 
Ad
aptation Of Lungs For Gaseous Exchange
 
alveoli provides a large surfaces area for gaseous exchangethe alveoli surfaces are moist for gases to dissolveseptal cells secrete surfactantthe alveoli have thin wallsthe walls are permeablenumerous blood capilariesa good ventilation systemstrecth receptors in the lungs help to initiate th ebreathing reflexelastic fibres

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