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But I replied that I greatly feared no amount of opportunity to help
"it would not have done any good. I have just told you how in my night-
"It seems very audacious for me to try to correct your impressions of
"The main difficulty comes from the complete lack of agreement
"For example?" I queried
"Yes."
"It appears that these contrasts were almost as great as at any previous
"That means in the courts. And were the rich and poor equal in the
"They were said to be equal in opportunities."
"Opportunities for what?"
"It may have been so to some extent at one time when the country was
"Why so?"
"Certainly; by the latter part of the nineteenth century manhood suf-
"Certainly."
"But I remember you had Constitutions of the nation and of the States
Perhaps they prevented the people from doing quite what they wished."
"No; the Constitutions were only a little more fundamental sort of
"Certainly; the popular majority could do anything if it was large and
"Emphatically so; the rich were but a handful comparatively."
"Nothing whatever."
"Of course."
"Do not the histories say so?"
The thing seemed so incomprehensible I thought there must be some
"To the capitalists."
"And did the people elect the capitalists?"
"Nobody elected them."
"Nobody appointed them."
"Dear me! Dear me! Why you make out these capitalists to have been
"None whatever."
Edith meditated in silence for some moments. Finally she said: "Your
"Do you mean that a form of government which seems to have been
"Certainly; the liberty of economic initiative by the individual."
"But did you not just tell me that economic initiative and business op-
"Certainly. It was admitted that there was no opening for any but cap-
"And yet you say that the reason given for abandoning industry to
"Certainly. The people were taught that they would individually enjoy
"But that was mere mockery; it was adding insult to injury."
"Why did the peace require such a great amount of keeping? Why
"On account of the inequality of conditions which prevailed. The strife
"That is exactly so. You could not state the whole case more ad-
"I should say that the right of a citizen to have a voice in a government
"I believe the average price of votes in close elections in America in my
"But who paid for the votes?"
"But why did not the people elect officials and representatives of their
"There was no assurance that they would be more faithful. Their very
Edith remained silent and thoughtful for some moments
Edith had risen from the garden bench on which we had been seated
"But what is this that he has been telling you?"
I have felt a little badly that Julian should have been one of the oppressor
Having thus served formal notice on my contemporaries that they
"By rendering it unnecessary for you to trouble yourself to explain to
"'We hold these truths to be self-evident; that all men are created
"and I will tell you what is the modern answer to the very interesting
"We divide the history of the evolution of the democratic idea into two
Nothing is more certain than that the signers of the immortal Declaration
"The second phase in the evolution of the democratic idea began with
"It is an interesting fact that the people began to think of applying their
America and the comparative ease of making a living up to the begin-
"During the negative phase of democracy it had been considered as
"Regarded as necessary steps in the evolution of society from pure
The doctor shrugged his shoulders
You would have said at once that it was just what you had been taught
Edith beckoned from the door and we rose from our seat
On going into breakfast the ladies met us with a highly interesting piece
"I should think it ought to be easy enough in this case. I feel as if I were
"I ought by this time to be used to finding that everything goes by con-
"without requiring you to do any violence to the methods of reasoning to
"What was the idea of it?"
"That a citizen was not a safe voter without education."
"Precisely so. The state therefore at great expense provided free educa-
"I can see that it is the interest of the state that I should accept an edu-
You argue that because an economic interest in the country should go
Contrast with this conception that precious notion of your contemporar-
We walked in silence for some moments. Presently the doctor said: "I
"Why not?" I demanded. "Did not men who owned property in a coun-
"In the sense that his property was geographically located in the coun-
Wealth owned in that way could only be a divisive and antisocial
"What we mean by a stake in the country is something which nobody
The formalities at the bank proved to be very simple. Dr. Leete intro-
"How does our banking system strike you as compared with that of
"It has one manifest advantage from the point of view of a penniless
Leete has told you all about this."
"In estimating the economic position of the citizen you must consider
I was much impressed with the extreme simplicity of these accounts
"But I understand that every citizen has a record kept also of his ser-
"But the citizen also has relations with the public stores from which he
"Certainly; but the whole system being under one head and all the
"But how about the elaborate statistics on which you base the calcula-
"Kindly spare me any further demonstration of the stupidity of my
"What sort of a feeling?"
I assured the doctor that I had indeed made this reflection
Finding a comfortable corner for us near one of the windows of the
You see this column of localities. If you make your cross against Boston
It is in this way made possible for most of us to find an opportunity in a
"What is the ranking?" I asked
"It is the figure which indicates his previous standing in the schools
And then the doctor took me to the Transfer Department and showed
"If that sort of work were as offensive as it must have been in your
"But what do you do with such persons?"
When we reached the house the doctor said:
Edith was greatly amused. "And so you thought I was shirking? Had it
"And can you take your vacation when you please?"
"Does that list exhaust the number of women's occupations in your
"You may be sure that I do my part of whatever unpleasant things
"There were no women in such occupations. They were followed by
"But you said you were already at work."
"What do you do?"
"A little of everything and nothing long. The idea is to give us during
That is what I had in mind when I asked you to guess my trade. Do you
Edith regarded me for a moment with an expression of simple sur-
"And has it not occurred to you to wonder why our dress was not like
"Possibly that has occurred to me among the thousand other questions
You were at first the only person about whose reality I felt entirely sure
As I spoke of the absoluteness with which I had depended on her dur-
"Not what?"
"Not be too much startled."
We knew that in your time the use of long skirts by women was univer-
"I am delighted!" exclaimed Edith. "I perfectly detest these horrible
I don't know how long I stood looking at her without a thought of
"I would give anything to know what you are thinking down in the
The extremely delicate tints of Edith's costume led me to remark that the
"Not wash them!—why not?"
"Because we don't think it nice to wear clothes again after they have
I took the edge of her mantle between my fingers
"You don't mean that they are paper-made also!" I exclaimed
"Do you mean that they also are made of paper?" I exclaimed
"I noticed the shoes your father gave me were very light as compared
"There are plenty of solutions which will make paper as hard as iron."
"And do not these shoes leak in winter?"
"After all this it is easy to believe that your hats and caps are also
"Go on!" I exclaimed. "I suppose I am next to be told that the delicious
Proceed—I am prepared to believe it!"
And now Edith began to laugh at my perplexed expression. She de-
"You surely can not form the slightest idea of the bodily ecstasy it gives
To describe in detail what I saw in my tour that day through the
Neither need I describe to you the princely workers in these palaces of
Picture low rooms roofed with rough and grimy timbers and walled
But these were only the material conditions of the scene. Shut your
"By no means. The unitary character of our industrial administration is
Edith answered
"And what is that?"
"Very well. The garments turned out by the factories have to be made
"The dressmaking department holds its vast provision of fabrics and
"Then anybody can set the fashion?" I said
Julian?"
West's contemporaries appear to have fully realized it; but as long as so-
The aesthetic equivalent of the moral wrong of inequality was the artistic
When we parted with the superintendent of the paper-process factory I
After a moment's consideration Edith exclaimed: "I have it! Ask no
"Hurry up!" was about the most threadbare phrase in the English lan-
"What is this?" I exclaimed
"It is too bad!" said my companion. "I tried to get you past without see-
"They are school children." said Edith. "We are all taken through this
In accompanying Edith to the part of the beach where we stood I had
Why not? What youth has not often been visited in his dreams by
When I proceeded to state to Edith this theory to account for her pres-
Europe and inspect such things there as might naturally be curiosities to
To which I replied that in talking with them I got the same looking-
"Are there any public baths open so late as this?" I said. "In my day
"How about public holidays; have you abandoned them?"
"Pretty generally. The occasional public holidays in your time were
It was to the Leander Natatorium that we had directed our steps. As I
"We have a poor opinion of fresh water for swimming when we can
Atlantic."
"But how do you get it up to this level?"
"Did you think we were going to give you your death?" said the doc-
Nature's resources of strength compared with others that are employed
A few moments later I was enjoying the most delicious sea bath that
It was one o'clock when we reached home
"And I would give as much to be spared a repetition of the experi-
"Do you mean that you really are afraid you will dream of the old
Among the pieces of furniture in the subterranean bedchamber where
Dr. Leete had found me sleeping was one of the strong boxes of iron cun-
As we sat at breakfast the day after the experiences narrated in the
"What is in the safe?" asked Edith's mother
"I suppose so; that is what I want to get at. What is that ground?"
"The court would say that to allow any person to withdraw or with-
"The duty of safeguarding the first and highest right of its mem-
"But how is the duty of society to safeguard the lives of its members
"The modern ethics of ownership is rather startlingly simple to a rep-
"Certainly not. It is impossible that you or any one could have so
You wholly overlooked and disregarded the peril to which life is ex-
"although the modern theory is far more rational that whatever can be
"But excuse my vehemence. Remember that I am arraigning your civil-
Just so in your day might the duty of the state to safeguard the lives of
"Of course not."
"But why not?"
Was it because the poor so loved the rich?"
"Scarcely."
"Why then?"
"You mean that it was only the pressure of want or the fear of it that
"That is about it."
"And would you call that voluntary service? The distinction between
"No doubt."
"Suppose somebody should charge you with holding the people under
"No doubt it would be."
"I must say that it was."
Nature through the appropriation by the rich of the means of supplying
Nature's demands was turned into a club by which the rich made the
"You make out our system to have been little better than slavery. That
"I beg your pardon. The slave received subsistence—clothing and shel-
There were never any slave quarters so vile as the tenement houses of
I had to admit that it was even so
I rallied once more
"One point of real superiority at least you must admit the wage-earner
"You have mentioned nothing but facts which stared me in the face all
"It was precisely because they stared you and your contemporaries so
"The essential difference between the new and the old point of view
"The main factor in the production of wealth among civilized men is
"Manifestly to society collectively—to the general fund."
There might be large differences in the fighting power of the individual
"The idea of an unearned increment given to private properties by the
It was not customary in the nineteenth century for people to keep large
"What is that about Masters of the Bread?" I asked. "Who were they?"
"'And the priests and Levites also cried out as the Lords of the Bread
"'And above all the clamor of the men were heard the voices of a mul-
"It was possible for the slave to rise in soul above his circumstances
Presently I said: "When you have satisfied your curiosity as to these
"What do you mean by the great bonfire?" I inquired
"It was a rather dramatic incident at the close of the great Revolution
There was no limit whatever to the extent of land which one person
"And how about other things besides land?" asked Edith
It would not be strictly fair to the old system to dismiss it without con-
"What was the excuse?" asked Edith
"But while the nineteenth-century moralists denied as sharply as we
"I think I scarcely need dwell on the entire lack of any moral justifica-
"But indeed the theory that the monopoly of wealth could be justified
"All this talk started with the discussion of Julian's fortune. Now tell
"And were you the only person whose property came to him by des-
"Precisely so. We hear what Julian says. While the moralists and the
"In ancient times it was customary to hold children responsible for the
Will it be said that at least the later theory of inheritance was more hu-
Nor cut thou less nor more
But just a pound of flesh; if thou tak'st more
Or the division of the twentieth part
How many of the great fortunes heaped up by the self-made men of
"you would have thought the corner stone of Christianity was the right
"The thing that seems to me the most utterly incredible about all this
"between the decline and fall of the systems of royal and priestly power
My countenance no doubt expressed the surprise I felt at this confes-
Presently Edith and her mother went into the house to study out the let-
From the moment of receiving my credit card I had contemplated a
"I beg your pardon a thousand times!" she exclaimed. "I ought to have
I was beginning to be a little nettled with so much mystery about so
Nobody in America but just yourself would ask for finger rings. You see
The doctor said that it certainly was a fact that the wearing of jewelry
I was constrained to admit that undoubtedly they would have disap-
The doctor laughed
He would not have been surprised to learn that one effect of that equal-
"And how was it with the men?"
"That was it."
"Very well; the effect of economic equality of the sexes and the con-
"Because from the moment that equality became established between
"Meaning thereby that previous to the establishment of economic
"And did it not occur to you that the real reason why woman gave so
"For the simple reason that their economic superiority to women hav-
The latter rather than the former seems to us the sort of woman which
What the women were after was independence of men and equality with
"The first leaders of the women's revolt were unable to see beyond the
This was the period during which such expressions as the 'tyrant man'
Equality is the only moral relation between human beings. Any reform
"The utterly inadequate idea which the early leaders of the women had
"In order to realize the prodigious debt of woman to the great Revolu-
"Of course there were. They were the prototypes of the universal wo-
"The subjection of the workingmen to the owners of capital was in-
When maintenance was the difficult problem it was in your day there
The result was one of the most shocking spectacles the world has ever
"And still woman's cup of humiliation was not full. There was yet an-
"Our philanthropists were greatly disturbed over what we called the
"Women's names are no more affected by marriage than men's."
"But how about the children?"
Nothing could have been more important to the protection of women on
"The marriage contract was embellished by a rich embroidery of senti-
"It seems from the records that there was much talk in your day about
"Considering what you have been telling Julian about women
I was forming the acquaintance of the twentieth-century civilization
At the door of the gymnasium Edith left us to join her class in the
"Is she to compete in anything?" I asked
"What is Edith's specialty?" I asked
"It is as obligatory as any part of the educational course until the body
"Do you mean that you take regular exercise in a gymnasium?"
"Why should I not? It is no less of an object to me to be well at sixty
On entering the amphitheater we saw gathered at one end of the arena
"Do you see that young man yonder in the chair with so many of the
"Ah! there is then at least one invalid?"
The next event was a surprise. I had noticed a group of youths on a
Then followed contests in ball-throwing and putting the shot
"It is plain where your women get their splendid chests and
There is no dispensation of Providence that will or ever would give a
"We had very many beautiful women; physically perfect they seemed
"I remember that expression. What a confession it was of the abject
Nature never found expression. No natural function ought to cause con-
If you once admit that these sorrows and infirmities are inseparable from
"Am I to understand that maternity now is unattended with risk or
"It is not nowadays an experience which is considered at all critical
"And the end of this physical rebuilding of the feminine physique is
"But let us come back to the specific question we were talking about
The doctor laughed. "I think you need not be apprehensive that such a
"The Greater Self—what does that mean?" I asked
"I am very well satisfied with the one whom Providence assigned to
"Who is to be the new teacher?" I asked
I assured the doctor that no programme could promise more entertain-
"Is this Arlington the same town that was a suburb of the city in my
"What is that?" I asked
Take this chair and adjust the instrument as you see me do. Now!"
"Tell us why the profits had to be so large for this purpose."
"Then it seems it is not necessary to consider our capitalist ancestors
"They recognized it as the great and constant cause of such disturb-
"What was the term by which they most commonly described the pres-
"Overproduction."
"Was it meant by this expression that there had been actually more
"To what have our historians been wont to compare the condition of
"To that of a victim of the disease of chronic dyspepsia so prevalent
"Please develop the parallel."
"In dyspepsia the patient suffered from inability to assimilate food
With abundance of dainties at hand he wasted away from the lack of
"Can you explain why such an extraordinary misnomer as overpro-
"What was the market?"
"The market was the number of those who had money to buy with
Those who had no money were non-existent so far as the market was
"Would such a thing be possible nowadays as full storehouses and a
"Of course not. Until every one was satisfied there could be no such
"What name did our ancestors give to the various economic disturb-
"To what cause did they ascribe the crises?"
"To almost everything besides the perfectly plain reason. An extensive
"What do you mean?"
"And what was that?"
"What were the methods which the capitalists engaged in production
"First was direct solicitation of buyers and a shameless vaunting of
"How so?"
"Because it was prodigiously expensive and the expense had to be ad-
"You say that the only way by which consumption could have been in-
"Please make that clear."
"Were adulteration and scamped work the only devices by which
"There were two other ways. The first was where the capitalist saved
Do you mean to say that the competition of capitalists for trade never op-
"Undoubtedly it did so operate in countries where from the long oper-
"How too late?"
"Because the capitalist had naturally refrained from sacrificing his
Nothing short of giving commodities away freely could help it. Accord-
"I think that it has been made apparent that it was a grievous aggrava-
"What was the general economic effect of competition?"
"I mean that under competition there was no free play whatever al-
He had to follow the pace set by his competitors or fail in business
"I can't say whether I should have been wiser than my contemporaries
And as the glut in the goods market stimulated competition among the
"And was it only among the wage-earners and the small producers
"Certainly. They professed to be much distressed over it. A large liter-
"And did these learned men ascribe it to its obvious cause as the neces-
"Yes. What was his plan?"
"Tell us about the wasteful expenditure of labor in competition."
"That was through the undertaking of industrial and commercial en-
"And was this a very large cause of waste?"
"Its magnitude may be inferred from the saying current at the time
"Now tell us something about the other great waste of profits by which
"What were some of the modes of luxurious expenditure indulged in
"What have you to say of the moral aspect of this expenditure for
"If the entire community had arrived at that stage of economic
"And why would they have lacked employment? Why were the
"Because they did not understand the economics of the subject. They
"Certainly. If the capitalists had cared at all about the humane aspect
"It would have been as advantageous economically as morally. The
"But how about the workmen employed by the capitalists in minister-
"How did they make that out?"
"They were apparently on its verge. The more economically advanced
No wonder our forefathers described their so-called political economy as
Esther. "The aggregate wealth wasted respectively in competition and
"But tell us this: Would it have been possible for the people of Amer-
"Nothing is more certain than that they could easily have done so. The
America or in any of the advanced countries when the existing product-
"Can you recall any instance in history in which it can be argued that a
"But there certainly was a large class of learned men who called them-
"How do you make that out?"
"What is it?"
While in other respects our forefathers did in various ways and degrees
"Have you ever looked over any of the treatises which our forefathers
Consequences of trying to get along without any Political Economy.' A
Economic Affairs when left to Anarchy by the Lack of any Regulation in
"The fatal and quite incomprehensible mistake of their authors was
"Rent and interest."
"What was rent?"
"Did this rent represent any economic service of any sort rendered to
"So far as regards the charge for the use of the land itself apart from
"Now tell us about interest; what was that?"
"Interest was the price paid for the use of money. Nowadays the col-
"And did interest represent any economic service to the community on
"What was the general effect of rent and interest upon the consump-
"It operated to reduce both."
"How?"
"In the same way that profit taking did. Those who received rent were
"What have you to say of these three processes as to their comparative
"That differed in different ages and countries according to the stage of
"For that purpose the results of production must be distributed equally
"Show why that is so."
"It is a self-evident mathematical proposition. The more people a loaf
"You have not called attention to the fact that the formula of the
"I spoke strictly of the economic side of the subject."
"Would it not have startled the old economists to hear that the secret of
And it came to pass that the people of the land came unto the capitalists
"'But when the people no more received the pennies of the capitalists
"'But the capitalists answered: "Not so. The water is ours. Ye shall not
"'But the capitalists were disquieted that the people bought no more
"'And the capitalists demanded of the soothsayers that they should in-
"'And the soothsayers went forth to the people and expounded to
"'And when the capitalists saw that the people still murmured and
"'And when the capitalists saw yet again that neither for the words of
"'And the mighty men and they who were skilled in war hearkened
"The crisis is ended"; and they sent forth and hired the people that they
"'And the words of the agitators which they spake to the people were
"'"Ye say truth. It is because of the capitalists and of their profits that
"'Then the agitators spake unto the people of the way. And they said:
"'And the agitators answered: "Choose ye discreet men to go in and
"'And the capitalists heard the noise of the shouting and what the
"'And the people went and did all the things that were told them of the
The boys and girls of the political-economy class rose to their feet at the
Having given me some explanation of the mechanical operation of the
Meanwhile the doctor explained to me that not only the telephone and
"I can stand no more of this just now! I am beginning to doubt seri-
As a practical way of settling that question the doctor proposed a brisk
"Have we had enough of economics for the day?" he asked as we left
I replied that I wished to attend it by all means
"Who are these?" I exclaimed
"Those people are alive!" I said
Let me try to give you the modern point of view as to the part played by
"In order to realize how powerfully these strikes operated to impress
"'We can bear no more. It is better to starve than live on the terms you
It was the same cry that in varied form but in one sense has been the
My experiences since I waked up in this year 2000 might be said to
The doctor smiled gravely
We arrived at the Arlington School some time before the beginning of
"In the so-called political economies of our forefathers we read a vast
Americans exchanged the food stuffs which it was so easy for them to
"The American grain merchant who exported grain to the English
Here would seem a great gain surely; but look at the other side of it. The
English must pay for their grain by supplying the Americans with cloth
Americans would exchange their grain for these commodities with the
And now look again at the American farmer. He is now getting his im-
"But was he as well off? Was either the American or the English work-
"In the case of the supposed reciprocal trade between England and
"The overwhelming competition of the capitalists of the stronger coun-
"How about the condition of the masses in a country thus reduced to
"That did not follow at all. We must constantly keep in mind that the
"Let us have a concrete illustration." said the teacher. "Take the case of
England. She was beyond comparison the country of all others in the
"Around the world each needful product flies
For all the luxuries the world supplies."
"To what has the struggle of the nations for foreign markets in the
"Please bring out your meaning by comparing our modern system in
"How does the integrated character of the economic system affect our
"We welcome them with eagerness. Why should we not? Any im-
"Owing to this division of the economic field into a set of vested per-
"Peace hath her victories not less renowned than those of war
The orators were not wont to dwell on the fact that these victories of
"And did the workers and the capitalists whose interests were
"They did all they could in that way. If the working-men had been
"How did the capitalists resist inventions?"
One of the most tragical chapters in the history of the old order is made
Have you anything to say on that point beyond what has been said?"
"From the times of antiquity up to the last quarter of the eighteenth
"that every form of human unhappiness or imperfection resulting dir-
Take the condition of the mass of the people in the advanced countries at
"Is it possible that the improvement had been so small that there could
Florence has given us the facts in speaking of the effects of foreign com-
Roman Empire than they were in the nineteenth century. If the French
"How was it in the United States?"
Revolution. And the strangest thing about it all is that their failure to de-
What was there about the old system of private capitalism to account for
"Please proceed with the explanation."
"Precisely so. The only motive of the capitalist in introducing labor-
"But did not the competition among the capitalists compel them to sac-
"Undoubtedly; but such reductions in price would not increase the
States was ruinous."
"Were farmers the only class of small capitalists who were injured
"The rule was the same for all small capitalists whatever business they
This had indeed been the attitude of all the persons of mature years
At once I found myself talking and jesting with the young people as
Florence! Esther! Helen! Marion! Margaret! George! Robert! Harold!
Paul!—Never shall I forget that group of star-eyed girls and splendid
It was one of those Indian summer afternoons when it seems sinful
"The extension of the educational machinery necessary to provide the
"if it were a question of their undertaking the higher education of our
"But does not the reputation of particular teachers attract students to
"The mind is really not fit for many most important branches of know-
"For the proper use of these opportunities for the lifelong pursuit of
Youth is visited with noble aspirations and high dreams of duty and per-
"Heaven lies about us in our infancy
Shades of the prison house begin to close
Upon the growing boy
I think if he were a partaker of our life he would not have been moved
As we left the station together I said to my companion that if he would
"but it will not surprise me to learn that your ideas and practices are
Upon receiving the assurance that I had absolutely no occupation ex-
I then perceived that we stood before one of the last-century church
You must pardon my involuntary indiscretion in proposing to turn in
The interior proved to be quite unchanged in essential particulars
I had truly told Mr. Barton that there was very little sentiment connec-
"Is it possible that Dr. Leete has not told you of our universal
"I have heard no language but English."
"But they were not many. How were they able to make so much
"But there was a minority of the cultured. Were they bigoted also?
Were they tools of the ecclesiastics?"
"Very good. You have explained your miracle. There is no ignorant
"That kind of classification may be said to have received a fatal shock
"It may be said that the old ecclesiastical system depended on a double
But the contempt into which the hireling relation had fallen at once after
"though doubtless not adequately. And yet I must say that no change in
"The women. They were in my day called the religious sex. The clergy
"Certainly they would have been if woman's position was to remain
"Should you have supposed that it would so operate?"
"I don't know. I never gave much thought to such matters. The ecclesi-
"Necessary as may have been the subjection of the race to priestly au-
God than any the past had attained."
Mr. Barton paused a moment before replying
Leete had as yet turned little on religious matters. In introducing you to
Eternal and Infinite
"This progress has been the result not merely of a more rational con-
"Your seers and poets in exalted moments had seen that death was but
Mr. Barton smiled
"You speak of Christ. Do I understand that this modern religion is con-
"Most certainly. It has been taught from the beginning of history and
"Why could not the world receive earlier the revelation it seems to find
God dwelleth in us and his love is perfected in us.' 'He that loveth his
'God is love and he that dwelleth in love dwelleth in God.' 'Every one
"Here is the very distillation of Christ's teaching as to the conditions of
After dinner the doctor said that he had an excursion to suggest for the
"But you were speaking of an excursion for this afternoon."
In these brief and fragmentary reminiscences of my first experiences in
But while we were prepared to expect well-nigh anything of man's in-
"Impossible; it is against human nature!" was the cry which met and
As I look back I see now how truly this base view of human nature
This very matter of air navigation of which I was speaking suggests a
And there rained a ghastly dew
Grappling in the central blue
"It represents the modern ideal of a proper system of government. The
"I have talked to you so much on that subject that I need enlarge no
"It appears to us that it is an axiom of democratic government that
"So complete through our telephone system has the most complicated
"We take pains to exercise this direct and constant supervision of our
"The guarantee of international peace which the world union has
"Compare with warfare of this character the conditions of the econom-
"We even are able to sympathize with the declaration of some of the
"As to the gain to humanity which has come from the abolition of all
"The new patriotism is the natural outcome of the new social and in-
"The idea of the old-time patriots was that foreigners were the only
"Another yet more potent effect of the new order in limiting foreign
"But you should understand that it is not merely on economic grounds
"What is that building which we are just passing over that has so much
"Doubtless there have been great improvements in all matters relating
"There are really no conditions to limit the course of physicians. The
"But the organization of a scientific system of alimentation did not
"By abolishing the need of markets for the exchange of labor and com-
"But you have cities yet!" I exclaimed
"But Boston is certainly a far finer-looking city than in my day."
"All the modern cities are far finer and fairer in every way than their
There are in Boston to-day perhaps a quarter as many people as lived in
"And you say this amazing depopulation took place at once after the
Revolution?"
"It began then. The only way in which the vast populations of the old
Revolution to provide homes elsewhere for those who desired to leave
"How far does this park extend?" I demanded at last. "There seems no
"Do you mean that the whole United States is laid out in this way?"
"What was the reforesting?" I asked
"It was the restoration of the forests after the Revolution. Under
"What is it that is missing?"
"The hayfield."
I will give you a practical answer."
After we had dropped from an altitude of perhaps a thousand feet to a
"Look down there to the right."
That is the cable by which the force is supplied. Observe those posts at
I had been told several times that at the present day farm work was
The doctor suggested that perhaps I would like to land and inspect
Europa on her bull. If her prototype was as charming as this young wo-
When I asked her what sort of a crop they were expecting to plant at
We spent some time inspecting the farm. The doctor explained the
Connected with the farm was one of the systems of great greenhouse
I saw in that great structure would of course astonish none of my read-
When we left the greenhouse the afternoon had worn away and the
Strongest of all the impressions of that to me so wonderful afternoon
"Since you have so successfully done away with the first of the two
We drifted on for a space in silence through the darkening sky
He endured more than the poverty of the wage-earner without his free-
"From time to time in the progress of history the condition of the farm-
What did I say to the theater for that evening? was the question with
No way of spending the evening could have been more agreeable to
John disposed of that point in the simplest way when he said that 'in the
Christ stated the doctrinal basis and practical purpose of the great Re-
"Dimly your nineteenth-century philosophers seem to have perceived
It is astonishing that there should have been any intelligent persons
Revolution from 1873."
"It is very rarely that the contemporaries of great revolutionary move-
"Simply the fact that it marked in a rather distinct way the beginning
There is a particular chapter in Storiot's History of the Revolution ex-
And Edith having brought the book from the library—for we still sat
"'With reference to the evolution of the system of private capitalism to
"'The first comprises the decades from the foundation of the republic
The moneyed class was small and the accumulations of capital petty. The
"'It is a fact creditable to Americans that they appear to have begun to
Already the more intelligent and public-spirited citizens were beginning
"'During the thirty or forty years from the serious beginning of the an-
"'History had furnished abundant previous illustrations of the over-
The consequences of this amazing concentration of wealth formerly so
"'Free competition in business had ceased to exist. Personal initiative in
"'The concentration of the economic administration of the country in
"'Of the two great divisions of the working masses it would be hard to
"'The economic function and possibilities of the farmer had similarly
"'From 1873 to 1896 the histories quote some six distinct business
"'There could not be a more striking proof of the downward tendency
"'The social consequences of so complete an overthrow of the former
"'A natural reflex of the changed social conditions of the country is
"'A prodigious display of luxury such as Europe could not rival had
"'Meanwhile the money kings took no pains to disguise the fullness of
American multimillionaire was such a union. These great capitalists
"'The influence exercised over the political government by the
"'The history of government contains few more shameful chapters than
"'Especially necessary had it become for the plutocracy to be able to
"'The labor strikes often resulted in disturbances too extensive to be
"'During the eighties the State governments entered upon a general
"'The extent and practical character of the use to which the capitalists
"'Americans of the former days had laughed scornfully at the bayonet-
"'It might almost be said that the citizen armies of the North had re-
While the armies of the people had been shedding rivers of blood in the
The doctor closed the book from which he had been reading and laid it
Once more the doctor asked Edith to bring him a book from the lib-
"Lest you should fancy that the force of Storiot's statement of the eco-
"The pinching of the economic shoe resulting from the concentration
"Close after the revolt of the wage earners came that of the farm-
This took the form of secret leagues and open political parties devoted to
"Your contemporaries of the thinking classes can not be taxed with in-
Government to improve their condition as petty capitalists oppressed by
"Their main idea seems to have been that their troubles as farmers
"Undoubtedly the currency and the coinage and the governmental fin-
"To have convinced himself of the folly of ascribing the economic dis-
"Was it indeed a new or strange phenomenon in human affairs that the
"Time would fail even to mention the innumerable reform nostrums
During these decades of apparently unvaried failure and disaster the re-
"Where had the progress been?" I said; "I don't see any."
Revolution possible. It was necessary that the system of private and class
"We reckon the beginning of the second part of the revolutionary
"It seems I barely missed it."
Europe. It was not till the close of the eighties that the total and ridicu-
"The two great points of the revolutionary programme—the principle
The apostles of a collective administration of the economic system in the
"The acceptance of the new ideal did not imply merely a change in
"By the light of the new teaching the people began to recognize that
"By the new philosophy the issue which had arisen between the
Except when the capitalists in control chanced to be men of high prin-
"Not only the press but the religious instruction of the people was un-
"Feeling how quickly the day would be theirs if they could but reach
"From about the beginning of the second phase of the revolutionary
"A particularly significant fact was the extraordinary unanimity and
West welcomed the new gospel of a new and equal economic system. In
At the beginning of the battle the capitalists had lost their reserves
"At about the beginning of the nineties the revolutionary movement
But toward the close of the eighties the diminished bitterness of feeling
"Although the idea of the public conduct of economic enterprises by
1896 its platform was substantially adopted by one of the great historic
"The terror which this demonstration of the strength of the party of so-
Julian to miss the opening scene."
"The historical attitude of the churches as the champions and apolo-
"The reformers of that time were most bitter against the clergy for their
Christ; when they realized that the hope which led on the advocates of
"But what became of the churches and the clergy when the people
"From the great revival we date the beginning of the era of modern re-
"And there was no war?"
"War! Of course not. Who was there to fight on the other side? It is odd
France but for the interference of the neighboring nations with their bru-
But in a democratic state like America the Revolution was practically
"So far as the stage properties of the traditional revolution were con-
"Am I to understand that there was actually no violent doings in con-
"And did the European nations fare as well when they passed through
"The conditions of none of them were so favorable to peaceful social
European peoples were the direful apprehensions of blood and slaughter
Rule." It is enough for this purpose to recall the fact that the costumes
There were a few anachronisms and inaccuracies in the setting which the
"One school of revolutionists declined to formulate or suggest any def-
One there was which argued that the trades unions might develop
"There was another school which held that the solution was to be
States during the revolutionary period were a striking indication of the
"There was another school still which held that the better order was to
"But you have asked me what was the plan of operation by which the
"The capitalists had taken for granted that they were to be directly as-
"It was therefore chiefly as a means to an ulterior end that the oppon-
Governors of States down to the street-cleaners
"At first the goods in these stores were of necessity bought by the
"To this end great food and cotton farms were established in all sec-
"How did the Government acquire the lands and manufacturing
"It was much the same with the factories and shops which the national
When these plants were suited to the Government requirements they
"The manufacturing plants were not the only form of idle capital
"And now consider the effect of another feature of the public-store sys-
"If you would imagine the complete collapse of the entire monetary
"By force!" exclaimed the doctor; "dear me! no. There was no sort of
They could offer no inducements in the depreciated money which alone
"And do I understand that there was no compulsion upon anybody to
"The problem might have been serious if the idle rich of whom you
Its just and humane propositions would scarcely appeal to the members
America was the existence in the Southern States of many millions of re-
"There is just one point about the transition stage that I want to go
"This was the situation which made it necessary previous to the con-
State enabled the otherwise unemployed mutually to maintain them-
"Where women were sufficiently employed already in housework in
"But how about the married women?"
"Certainly the mothers could have been trusted to see that nothing in-
"But of course the most radical innovation in establishing universal
Thenceforth all adult persons who could render any useful service to the
"But while the idea of compensating the capitalists for putting an end
"You see that this last and greatest of revolutions in the nature of the
"Your explanation leaves me nothing further to ask as to the matter of
"The general principle which governed the revolutionary policy in
"Did the new order get into full running condition so quickly as that?"
I asked
And yet the result was one that need not have surprised any one who
"The difficulty under the profit system had been to avoid producing
"It would be difficult to give you an idea of the tremendous burst of in-
Revolution threw itself into the task of uplifting the welfare of all classes
"It is said that in the first full year after the new order was established
While the class differences inherited from the former order in point of
If the reader were to judge merely from what has been set down in these
"When I came across this old volume on the top shelf of the library the
"The clergy reasoned that the fundamental cause of social misery was
"The element of truth in this argument is the admitted fact that the use
"The testimony of history is that the only test of the fitness of people at
"Applying this test to the situation toward the close of the nineteenth
"If the clergymen who objected to the Revolution on the ground that
"But indeed it is to be greatly feared that they were not sincere. They
"How would the clergy have been scandalized to hear that a Christian
"Under the modern system it is indeed true that no one ever imagined
"As to the notion of these objectors that economic equality would cut
"The whole of this subject of incentive taken by your contemporaries
Let us have another of their objections."
They argued that the effect of economic equality would be to make
"But let us be entirely fair to your contemporaries. Possibly those who
"Evidently; and no doubt these very objectors would have done the
Economic equality with the equalities of education and opportunity im-
The charge of abolishing and obscuring the natural differences between
"A great part of the objections to economic equality in this book seems
Coliseum would have hissed from the arena a performance in which the
"Very good. Now tell me what it would have been necessary to do by
"Precisely so; and that is just what economic equality proposed to do
Your extraordinary contemporaries objected to economic equality be-
"So much for the intellectual qualities that marked the victors in the
"Let us just glance at the spectacle which the old order presented in
"Let us look yet higher. We may surely expect to find independence of
We find that they were economic servants and hirelings either of hier-
"Judging from these examples of the sort of argumentative opposition
"The next objection—there are only two or three more worth mention-
"An instance of political corruption was one where the public servant
"Certainly. A case of corruption in office was simply a case where the
"A reason why these objectors seem to have been especially short-
"All the plausibility there was to this objection rested on the tacit as-
The very demand for nationalizing industry has resulted wholly from
"In 1776 the Americans overthrew the British royal government in the
"But to fully realize how strongly this argument of too much govern-
"And now we come to the last objection on my list. It is entirely differ-
"I do not see why it might not be reasonable to anticipate such a res-
"What are the other things that would not be equal?"
"Quite so. The reflection you have suggested is enough to indicate the
"This prodigious convenience of Malthusianism has an excuse for
"It was a fallacy the more inexcusable because Malthus and all his fol-
Malthus had been a revolutionist instead of a champion and defender of
"But let Malthus go. While the low birth-rate among the cultured
News from Nowhere (1890) is a classic work combining utopian so-
The Napoleon of Notting Hill is a novel written by G. K. Chesterton in
The dreary succession of randomly selected Kings of England is broken
While the novel is humorous (one instance has the King sitting on top of
A Utopian vision in which the title character leads the democratic
De Optimo Republicae Statu deque Nova Insula Utopia (translated On
The Power of The Coming Race is a powerful novel that fired the ima-
book tells the story of a young American adventurer who discovers a
The Machine Stops is a short science fiction story. It describes a world
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Edward Bellamy - Equality

Edward Bellamy - Equality

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Published by: Xavi on Sep 12, 2010
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