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Cleaning And Sanitizing

Cleaning And Sanitizing

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Published by Mich A. Gonzales
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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Mich A. Gonzales on Sep 12, 2010
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11/04/2012

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CLEANING and
SANITIZING
OPERATIONSOBJECTIVESRecognize the difference between cleaning and
sanitizing
.Identify the different processes that can be
used
to clean andsanitize equipment and utensils in a food establishment.Identify the primary steps involved in manually andmechanically cleaning and
sanitizing
equipment and utensils.Describe the factors affecting cleaning efficiency.Identify the procedures
used
to clean environmental areas in afood establishment Principles of Cleaning and
Sanitizing
 CleaningPhysical removal of soil and food residues from surfaces of equipment and utensilsSanitizationTreatment of a surface that has been previously cleaned toreduce the number of disease-causing microorganisms to safelevels.CleaningRemoval of Particles (soil or food residue).Pre-flushing with warm waterHot water and steam may not be effective because___________cleaningApplication of Cleaning Agent Soaking  before scrubbingSpray Method  fix or portable spray units using hot water orsteamClean-in-Place System  the strength and velocity of thecleaning solution removes soil and dirt cleaningAbrasive Cleaning  for removal of firm soil on the surfaceNot recommended for stainless steel surfaces; food contact surfacesRinsingUse hot, potable water to remove (dirt or cleaning solutions?)Detergent use may affect sanitization.Factors Affecting Cleaning EfficiencyType of residue to be removedFood depositsMineral depositsMicrobesFats and oilsDirt and debris* Knowing the type of soil determines the physical andchemical methods suited.factorsWater qualityShould use potable waterIf from wells, water should be tested once a yearHowever, hardness, taste and some odors may still be present factors
Detergents
and
cleaners
to be
used
 Cleaning or purifying agent detergeo - to wipe awayWater may be, but soaps, etc may
used
to improveeffectivenessSoaps  composed of alkali and fatty acidsOnly effective with soft waterfactors
Detergents
Alkaline
detergents
 combines with proteins to form solublecompounds easily removed by water.Sodium hydroxide  strongest type but corrosiveSodium carbonates  safer and less corrosivefactors
Detergents
Acid detergent  dissolve mineral deposits,
used
to removefood and hardwater depositsInorganics: HCl, H
2
SO
4
, HNO
2
,H
3
PO
4
 
Used
only in special cases because it is corrosive to metalsOrganic acids are not as corrosive and less irritatingfactors
Detergents
 Abrasives  are
used
for jobs that require scrubbing, scouring,or polishingPumice, quartz and sand are ground into small particle sizeand supply scouring and polishing action to cleansers, handsoaps and soap pads.Can cause scratches on metal surfaceScraped particles may also contaminate foodfactorsDetergentDetergent sanitizers  both detergent and sanitizerApplied two times: first, as detergent; second as sanitizerfactorsWater TemperatureShould be between 130F (54C)and 160F (71C)Should be warm and not hot Some
detergents
are designed for cold waterfactorsWater velocityCleaning is by elbow grease in manual operations.May help remove soil and filmMay not be necessary if using an effective detergent factorsTime detergent remains in contact with the surfaceLonger time, more efficient Soaked items in detergent need less scrubbingConcentration of detergent Follow manufacturers concentrationfactorsCleaning frequencyEquipment and utensils for PHF must be cleaned every fourhours (FDA)Additional guidelines:Before each use with a different raw animal foodChange from raw food to RTEsBetween PHF and fruits and vegetablesBetween use and storing of measuring deviceWhen contamination is suspectedCleaning frequencyExceptions:When equipment are maintained at proper hot and coldholding temp.When utensils are in refrigerated room or area.When do we clean utensils and equipment not 
used
with PHF?GuidelinesBefore each use with different food type.Each time there is a change from working with raw foods toworking with ready-to-eat foods.Between uses with raw fruits and vegetables and with PHF.Before using or storing a food temperature measuring device.At any time during the
operation
when contamination mayhave occurred
Sanitizing
 Sanitizers destroy disease-causing microorganisms present inequipment and utensils after cleaningTypes:
 
Heat 
sanitizing
 Chemical
 
sanitizing
 Heat 
Sanitizing
(>77°C for 30 min)Advantages:Can penetrate small cracks and crevicesNon-corrosive to metal surfaceNon-selective to microbial groupsLeaves no residuesEasily measuredHeat 
sanitizing
 In manual ware washing, involves immersing cleanedequipment and utensils for at least 30s in hot water that ismaintained at 171F (>77C)In mechanical, at least 165F (74C) but not more than 194F(90C)More important is the temperature in the utensilChemical
Sanitizing
 To chemically sanitize, one can immerse objectsin
sanitizing
solutions or by swabbing, brushing or pressurespraying a
 
sanitizing
solution directly on the surface.Factors affecting action of chemical sanitizersContact of sanitizerIntimate contact between microbes and sanitizerSelectivity of sanitizerChlorine  non- selectiveConcentrationIncreasing concentration reaches maximumMore is not always better; and high concentrations can betoxic.Temperature of solutionCommon sanitizers increase activity as temp. increasesBetween 75F (24C) and 120F (49C).Chlorine should not be use with temp. above 49C due to_________.pH of solutionchlorine and iodophors generally decrease in effectivenesswith an increase in pH. Soaps should be rinsed before usingsanitizer.Time of exposureAllow sufficient timeCommonly
Used
SanitizersChlorineComponent of hypochlorites.Advantages:Control wide range of microbesDeodorize and sanitizeNon-toxic at recommended conc.Colorless and non-stainingEasy to use and economicalHypochlorites release hypochlorus acid which killsEffectiveness is decreased even with small amount of food soilsSoaps must be rinsed off before
sanitizing
  10>10pH7s38C50 ppm10s49C25 ppm10s13C100 ppmExposureTemperatureChlorine Conc.IodineIodophors are iodine-containing sanitizersEffective for disease-causing bacteria found on human hands.Function best in acidic pH, and bet. 24C and 49C.At least 25 parts per million for 30sLess influenced by organic matter but are expensive, maydiscolor, stain and be slippery when in use.30s<724-49C12.5 ppm (soaking)30s<724-49C25 ppm(swab & spray)pHExposureTemperatureIodophorsConc.Quaternary Ammonium CompoundsAmmonia saltsNon-corrosive and non-irritating to skin and have no taste orodor at proper conc.Do not destroy wide variety of microbes200 parts per millionMore heat stable; work well above 24C30s>7>24C200 ppm(immersion)pHExposureTemperatureQuatsConc.Very expensiveStable at high temp; stable for longer time; good for in-placesanitizersQuatsModerate cost; can stain equipment Less corrosive to equipment; less irritating to skiin; good forkilling germs on handsIodophorsCorrosive to equipment; can irritate human skin and handsEconomic cost; Kills many microbes; goodfor
sanitizing
applicationsChlorine CompoundsDisadvantagesAdvantagesSanitizerMechanical DishwashingUse for cleaning and sanitization of multiple-use equipment and utensilsFor equipment with no electrical partsMajor problems are operational and require on goingsupervision and surveillance.Manual DishwashingPerformed in sink with three components: washing, rinsingand
sanitizing
 

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