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P R E F A C E
This textbook is an expanded version of
Elementary Linear Algebra
, Ninth Edition, by Howard Anton. The first ten chapters of this book are identical to the first ten chapters of that text; the eleventh chapter consists of 21 applications of linear algebradrawn from business, economics, engineering, physics, computer science, approximation theory, ecology, sociology,demography, and genetics. The applications are, with one exception, independent of one another and each comes with a list of mathematical prerequisites. Thus, each instructor has the flexibility to choose those applications that are suitable for his or herstudents and to incorporate each application anywhere in the course after the mathematical prerequisites have been satisfied.This edition of
Elementary Linear Algebra
, like those that have preceded it, gives an elementary treatment of linear algebra thatis suitable for students in their freshman or sophomore year. The aim is to present the fundamentals of linear algebra in theclearest possibleway; pedagogy is the main consideration. Calculus is not a prerequisite, but there are clearly labeled exercisesand examples for students who have studied calculus. Those exercises can be omitted without loss of continuity. Technology isalso not required, but for those who would like to use
MATLAB
, Maple,
Mathematica
, or calculators with linear algebracapabilities, exercises have been included at the ends of the chapters that allow for further exploration of that chapter'scontents.
SUMMARY OF CHANGESIN THIS EDITION
This edition contains organizational changes and additional material suggested by users of the text. Most of the text isunchanged. The entire text has been reviewed for accuracy, typographical errors, and areas where the exposition could beimproved or additional examples are needed. The following changes have been made:

Section 6.5 has been split into two sections: Section 6.5 Change of Basis and Section 6.6 Orthogonal Matrices. Thisallows for sharper focus on each topic.

A new Section 4.4 Spaces of Polynomials has been added to further smooth the transition to general lineartransformations, and a new Section 8.6 Isomorphisms has been added to provide explicit coverage of this topic.

Chapter 2 has been reorganized by switching Section 2.1 with Section 2.4. The cofactor expansion approach todeterminants is now covered first and the combinatorial approach is now at the end of the chapter.

Additional exercises, including Discussion and Discovery, Supplementary, and Technology exercises, have been addedthroughout the text.

In response to instructors' requests, the number of exercises that have answers in the back of the book has been reducedconsiderably.

The page design has been modified to enhance the readability of the text.

A new section on the earliest applications of linear algebra has been added to Chapter 11. This section shows how linearequations were used to solve practical problems in ancient Egypt, Babylonia, Greece, China, and India.

Hallmark Features

Relationships Between Concepts
One of the important goals of a course in linear algebra is to establish the intricatethread of relationships between systems of linear equations, matrices, determinants, vectors, linear transformations, andeigenvalues. That thread of relationships is developed through the following crescendo of theorems that link each newidea with ideas that preceded it: 1.5.3, 1.6.4, 2.3.6, 4.3.4, 5.6.9, 6.2.7, 6.4.5, 7.1.5. These theorems bring a coherence tothe linear algebra landscape and also serve as a constant source of review.

Smooth Transition to Abstraction
The transition from to general vector spaces is often difficult for students. Tosmooth out that transition, the underlying geometry of is emphasized and key ideas are developed in beforeproceeding to general vector spaces.

Early Exposure to Linear Transformations and Eigenvalues
To ensure that the material on linear transformationsand eigenvalues does not get lost at the end of the course, some of the basic concepts relating to those topics aredeveloped early in the text and then reviewed and expanded on when the topic is treated in more depth later in the text.For example, characteristic equations are discussed briefly in the chapter on determinants, and linear transformations fromto are discussed immediately after is introduced, then reviewed later in the context of general lineartransformations.