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15.3-Steady Uniform Flow

15.3-Steady Uniform Flow

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Published by: Vishal Patadia on Sep 13, 2010
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15.3 Steady Uniform Flow
Uniform flow requires that velocity be constant in the flow direction, so the shape of the channel and the depthof fluid is the same from section to section. Consideration of the foregoing slope equations shows that for uniform flow, the slope of the HGL will be the same as the channel slope, because the velocity and depth are thesame in both sections. The HGL, and thus the slope of the water surface, is controlled by head loss. If onerestates the Darcy-Weisbach equation introduced in Chapter 10 with
 D
replaced by 4
 R
h
, the head loss is(15.8)From Fig. 15.3,
0
= [slope of HGL], which is a function of the head loss, so
0
= (
h
 f 
/
 L
), yielding the followingequation for velocity:(15.9)To solve Eq. (15.9) for velocity, the friction factor 
 f 
can be found from the Moody diagram (Fig. 10.14) and canthen be used to solve iteratively for the velocity for a given uniform-flow condition. This is demonstrated inExample 15.2.
EXAMPLE 15.2 ESTIMATIG Q FOR UIFORM FLOWUSIG DARCY-WEISBACH EQUATIO
Estimate the discharge of water that a concrete channel 10 ft wide can carry if the depth of flow is 6 ftand the slope of the channel is 0.0016.
 Problem Definition
Situation:
Uniform flow, concrete surface.
Find:
Discharge in ft
3
/s.
Properties:
Concrete, Table 10.4:
 s
= 0.012–0.12 inches, or 0.001–0.01 ft.
 Plan
1. Find channel velocity by relating channel slope to
h
 f 
/
 L
with Eq. (15.9).
·
Use the Moody diagram to find
 f.
·
Assume a roughness for first estimate of 
 s
/4
 R
h
to use with Reynolds number.
·
Select a first estimate of 
 f 
, which is opposite
 s
4
 R
h
on the Moody diagram
·
Solve for 
, first iteration.
·
Calculate new Reynolds number with this value of 
; check 
 f 
against reasonableconvergence criterion.2. Calculate
Q = VA
.
Steady Uniform Flowhttp://edugen.wiley.com/edugen/courses/crs2436/crowe9771/crowe9771...1 of 141/15/2009 1:30 AM
 
 Solution
1.For Eq. (15.9), ; need to get a value for 
 f 
.2a. Assume
 s
= 0.005 ft. Relative roughness is2b. Use value of 
 s
/4
 R
h
= 0.00046as a guide to estimate
 f 
= 0.016.2c. First iteration for 
gives2d. Recalculate Reynolds number.Using this new value of Re, and with
 s
/4
 R
h
= 0.00046 read
 f 
as 0.016. This value of 
 f 
is thesame as previous estimate—meets reasonable convergence criterion.3. Compute
Q.
Rock-bedded channels
For rock-bedded channels such as those in some natural streams or unlined canals, the larger rocks producemost of the resistance to flow, and essentially none of this resistance is due to viscous effects. Thus, the frictionfactor is independent of the Reynolds number. This is analagous to the fully rough region of the Moody diagramfor pipe flow. For a rock-bedded channel, Limerinos 1 has shown that the resistance coefficient
 f 
can be given interms of the size of rock in the stream bed as(15.10)where
84
is a measure of the rock size.
*
See Example 15.3
EXAMPLE 15.3 RESISTACE COEFFICIET FOR BOULDERS
Steady Uniform Flowhttp://edugen.wiley.com/edugen/courses/crs2436/crowe9771/crowe9771...2 of 141/15/2009 1:30 AM
 
Determine the value of the resistance coefficient,
 f 
, for a natural rock-bedded channel that is 100 ftwide and has an average depth of 4.3 ft. The
84
size of boulders in the stream bed is 0.72 ft.
 Problem Definition
Situation:
Boulders in natural channel bottom will control magnitude of 
 f.
Find:
Friction factor,
 f 
.
 Plan
1. Simplify calculation of 
 R
h
for wide channel; take
 R
h
to be depth.2. Use Eq. (15.10) to find
 f 
on the basis of the
84
boulder size.
 Solution
1.
 R
h
is 4.3 ft.2. Evaluate
 f 
.
The Chezy Equation
Leaders in open-channel research have recommended the use of the methods already presented (involving theReynolds number and relative roughness
 s
) for channel design 2. However, many engineers continue to use twotraditional methods, the Chezy equation and the Manning equation.As noted earlier, the depth in uniform flow, called
normal depth, y
n
 ,
is constant. Consequently,
h
 f 
/
 L
is the slope
0
of the channel, and Eq. (15.8) can be written asor (15.11)where(15.12)Since
Q = VA
, the discharge in a channel is given by(15.13)
Steady Uniform Flowhttp://edugen.wiley.com/edugen/courses/crs2436/crowe9771/crowe9771...3 of 141/15/2009 1:30 AM

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