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[Sarf] Fundamentals of Classical Arabic - Volume I- Conjugating Regular Verbs and Derived Nouns, Lesson 01 by Husayn 'Abdu's-Sattar [3 Pp.]

[Sarf] Fundamentals of Classical Arabic - Volume I- Conjugating Regular Verbs and Derived Nouns, Lesson 01 by Husayn 'Abdu's-Sattar [3 Pp.]

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Published by: Tahir Ali on Sep 13, 2010
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09/13/2010

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Lesson One: Mapping the Arabic Language 
Figure 1.1
presents a map of the Arabic language. This chart provides anoverview of the task at hand and establishes a framework for futurelearning.
PRINCIPLE ONE
 The term
articulation 
ﻆﹶﻔﹶﻟ
 )
1
refers to all words that are produced by thetongue.
 Articulation 
s
ﻆﹶﻔﹶﻟ
 ) are divided into (1) words that are
meaningful 
 
ﻉﻮﺿﻮﻣ
 ) and (2) words that are
meaningless 
ﻞﻤﻬﻣ
 ).
 Meaningful 
ﻉﻮﺿﻮﻣ
 )articulations have established, understood meanings. For example, the Arabic word
kitab 
)
ﺏﺎﺘﻛ 
(
means, “a book.” On the other hand,
meaningless 
ﻞﻤﻬﻣ
 ) articulations lack established meanings. Consider, forexample, the word “Pepsi.” If articulated five hundred years ago, beforethe advent of this now famous beverage, this word would have had nomeaning.
PRINCIPLE TWO
 Meaningful 
ﻉﻮﺿﻮﻣ
 ) articulations can be further divided into (1)
single 
 
ﺩﺮﹾﻔﻣ
 ) and (2)
compound 
ﺐﱠﻛﺮﻣ
 ). If an articulation is composed of one word, it is called
single 
 
)
ﺩﺮﹾﻔﻣ
(
; whereas, if it is composed of more thanone word, it is called
compound 
ﺐﱠﻛﺮﻣ
 ). For example, the word
kitab 
 
ﺏﺎﺘﻛ 
 ) is
single 
ﺩﺮﹾﻔﻣ
 ), while the phrase
rasul-Allah 
ﹸﻝﻮﺳﺭﷲﺍ
 ),
2
made up of two words, is
compound 
ﺐﱠﻛﺮﻣ
 ).
1
 
Lafad 
ﻆﹶﻔﹶﻟ
 ) is derived from the verbal noun “to throw.” Arabic grammarians use this term torefer to articulations because speech involves “throwing” sounds from the tongue.
2
 
ﹸﻝﻮﺳﺭﷲﺍ
means, “Messenger of Allah.”
 
FUNDAMENTALS OF CLASSICAL ARABIC
10
PRINCIPLE THREE
 All
single 
ﺩﺮﹾﻔﻣ
 ) words are classified into one of three types:1)
noun 
ﻢﺳﺍ
 )2)
verb 
ﻞﻌﻓ
 )3)
 particle 
ﻑﺮﺣ
 )Stated otherwise, every word in the Arabic dictionary fits into one of these three categories.
PRINCIPLE FOUR 
Compound 
ﺐﱠﻛﺮﻣ
 ) articulations are made up of two or more words. Suchcombinations are either
beneficial 
ﺪﻴﻔﻣ
 ) or
non-beneficial 
 
ﺮﻴﹶﻏﺪﻴﻔﻣ
 ).
Beneficial 
 
ﺪﻴﻔﻣ
 ) groups of words express a complete idea and join together to forma complete sentence.
 Non-beneficial 
ﺮﻴﹶﻏﺪﻴﻔﻣ
 ) groups of words express anincomplete idea and join together to form a phrase,
3
or an incompletesentence. This volume deals with
single 
ﺩﺮﹾﻔﻣ
 ) words and emphasizes conjugating  verbs and nouns.
3
A
 phrase 
is defined as two or more words that form a syntactic unit that is less than acomplete sentence.

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