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Bevan Bird - Analysis of Survey Point Displacements Using Total Station Measurements

Bevan Bird - Analysis of Survey Point Displacements Using Total Station Measurements

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Published by Bevan Bird
A practical software suite is designed which rigorously processes survey observations (angles
and distances) to enable us to detect and visualize significant structural deformations. By
using it, three practical problems are solved. The construction of an underground light rail
rapid transit station requires excavation of a street for an entire city block. A network is
designed for monitoring the buildings at risk of being damaged by subsidence. The second
problem stems from preloading boggy ground for construction of a highway intersection. A
water main buried close by is being monitored for deformation in three dimensions. Here,
horizontal deformation is analyzed by using five epochs of total station data. We see the
importance of considering trends of more than two epochs so that surveying blunders are not
reported as deformations. Preanalysis, least squares adjustment, and congruency testing are
performed as part of a rigorous scheme for deformation monitoring. The importance of
control point stability testing is stressed; direct measurements between control points are
made so that we may confidently identify the stable and unstable points. The third worked
problem demonstrates the monitoring of leaning trees. In addition to horizontal deformation
analysis, vertical displacements are tested against their confidence intervals. In this way,
points on the trees are monitored in three dimensions.
A practical software suite is designed which rigorously processes survey observations (angles
and distances) to enable us to detect and visualize significant structural deformations. By
using it, three practical problems are solved. The construction of an underground light rail
rapid transit station requires excavation of a street for an entire city block. A network is
designed for monitoring the buildings at risk of being damaged by subsidence. The second
problem stems from preloading boggy ground for construction of a highway intersection. A
water main buried close by is being monitored for deformation in three dimensions. Here,
horizontal deformation is analyzed by using five epochs of total station data. We see the
importance of considering trends of more than two epochs so that surveying blunders are not
reported as deformations. Preanalysis, least squares adjustment, and congruency testing are
performed as part of a rigorous scheme for deformation monitoring. The importance of
control point stability testing is stressed; direct measurements between control points are
made so that we may confidently identify the stable and unstable points. The third worked
problem demonstrates the monitoring of leaning trees. In addition to horizontal deformation
analysis, vertical displacements are tested against their confidence intervals. In this way,
points on the trees are monitored in three dimensions.

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Published by: Bevan Bird on Sep 14, 2010
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Analysis of Survey Point Displacements UsingTotal Station Measurements
A technical report byBevan Birdsubmitted to theGeomatics Engineering Department ofBritish Columbia Institute of Technologyin partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree ofBachelor of Technologyand the courseGEOM 8320: Geomatics ProjectonApril 24, 2009
 
Bird 2009 Analysis of Survey Point Displacements Using Total Station Measurements ii
Acknowledgements
 This report exists only because of the encouragement and generous dedication of time andeffort of several people, who I would like to acknowledge. First, I would like to thank JohnOgundare for suggesting the study topic and for helping me plan the project. His technicalassistance with adjustment and deformation analysis concepts was indispensible. I alsogreatly appreciate his proofreading and his advising on the finer problems in technical reportwriting. I would like to thank Don Thompson for guidance in planning this project.
 
Iappreciate the generosity of Jack Clarke in supplying the raw survey data. This allowed meto analyze the deformation of real structures and learn about realistic survey error budgets.Without interviews with Eddie Neumann regarding practical high precision field procedures,the report would not have been complete. Consultations with Azadeh Koohzare were alwaysvery informative and helped me clarify my tasks. David Martens inspired me to learn the Cprogramming language, and provided me a copy of the C source code for his BCITCOGOsoftware in 2006, to help me with my migration from BASIC. Colin Lawrence helped megain a thorough understanding of the necessary fundamental mathematical concepts,including statistical hypothesis testing, matrix algebra, and the calculus. Finally, I would liketo express my thanks to my parents, Maita and Dick Bird, for their unlimited support while Iworked on this project. The valuable input of everyone who was involved is muchappreciated. To anyone whom I neglected to include here I sincerely apologize for theunintentional exclusion.
 
Bird 2009 Analysis of Survey Point Displacements Using Total Station Measurements iii
Abstract
A practical software suite is designed which rigorously processes survey observations (anglesand distances) to enable us to detect and visualize significant structural deformations. Byusing it, three practical problems are solved. The construction of an underground light railrapid transit station requires excavation of a street for an entire city block. A network isdesigned for monitoring the buildings at risk of being damaged by subsidence. The secondproblem stems from preloading boggy ground for construction of a highway intersection. Awater main buried close by is being monitored for deformation in three dimensions. Here,horizontal deformation is analyzed by using five epochs of total station data. We see theimportance of considering trends of more than two epochs so that surveying blunders are notreported as deformations. Preanalysis, least squares adjustment, and congruency testing areperformed as part of a rigorous scheme for deformation monitoring. The importance of control point stability testing is stressed; direct measurements between control points aremade so that we may confidently identify the stable and unstable points. The third workedproblem demonstrates the monitoring of leaning trees. In addition to horizontal deformationanalysis, vertical displacements are tested against their confidence intervals. In this way,points on the trees are monitored in three dimensions.

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