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Antenna _3rd Edition, 2002_ - Kraus - Solution Manual

Antenna _3rd Edition, 2002_ - Kraus - Solution Manual

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iii
Preface
This Instructors’ Manual provides solutions to most of the problems in ANTENNAS:FOR ALL APPLICATIONS, THIRD EDITION. All problems are solved for whichanswers appear in Appendix F of the text, and in addition, solutions are given for a largefraction of the other problems. Including multiple parts, there are 600 problems in thetext and solutions are presented here for the majority of them.Many of the problem titles are supplemented by key words or phrases alluding to thesolution procedure. Answers are indicated. Many tips on solutions are included whichcan be passed on to students.Although an objective of problem solving is to obtain an answer, we have endeavoredto also provide insights as to how many of the problems are related to engineeringsituations in the real world.The Manual includes an index to assist in finding problems by topic or principle andto facilitate finding closely-related problems.This Manual was prepared with the assistance of Dr. Erich Pacht.Professor John D. KrausDept. of Electrical EngineeringOhio State University2015 Neil AveColumbus, Ohio 43210Dr. Ronald J. MarhefkaSenior Research Scientist/Adjunct Professor The Ohio State UniversityElectroscience Laboratory1320 Kinnear RoadColumbus, Ohio 43212
 
 
iv
Table of Contents
Preface iiiProblem Solutions:Chapter 2. Antenna Basics ............................................................................................1Chapter 3. The Antenna Family ..................................................................................17Chapter 4. Point Sources .............................................................................................19Chapter 5. Arrays of Point Sources, Part I ..................................................................23Chapter 5. Arrays of Point Sources, Part II .................................................................29Chapter 6. The Electric Dipole and Thin Linear Antennas .........................................35Chapter 7. The Loop Antenna .....................................................................................47Chapter 8. End-Fire Antennas: The Helical Beam Antenna and the Yagi-UdaArray, Part I ...............................................................................................53Chapter 8. The Helical Antenna: Axial and Other Modes, Part II .............................55Chapter 9. Slot, Patch and Horn Antennas ..................................................................57Chapter 10. Flat Sheet, Corner and Parabolic Reflector Antennas ...............................65Chapter 11. Broadband and Frequency-Independent Antennas ....................................75Chapter 12. Antenna Temperature, Remote Sensing and Radar Cross Section ............81Chapter 13. Self and Mutual Impedances ....................................................................103Chapter 14. The Cylindrical Antenna and the Moment Method (MM) ......................105Chapter 15. The Fourier Transform Relation Between Aperture Distributionand Far-Field Pattern ...............................................................................107Chapter 16. Arrays of Dipoles and of Aperture ..........................................................109Chapter 17. Lens Antennas ..........................................................................................121Chapter 18. Frequency-Selective Surfaces and Periodic StructuresBy Ben A. Munk ......................................................................................125Chapter 19. Practical Design Considerations of Large Aperture Antennas ................127Chapter 21. Antennas for Special Applications ..........................................................135Chapter 23. Baluns, etc. By Ben A. Munk ..................................................................143Chapter 24. Antenna Measurements. By Arto Lehto andPertti Vainikainen ....................................................................................147Index 153
 
1
Chapter 2. Antenna Basics
2-7-1. Directivity.
Show that the directivity
 D
of an antenna may be written
 
 
          
422maxmax
,,41,,
 Z  E  E  Z  E  E  D
 
Solution
:
av
 D
max
),(
  
,
2maxmax
),(),(
S
    
,
 
 
   
4
),(41
av
 
2
),(),(
S
    
,
 Z  E  E S
       
,,),(
 Therefore
 
 
          
422maxmax
,,41,,
 Z  E  E  Z  E  E  D
q.e.d. Note that
2
area/steradian, so
2
Sr 
or (watts/steradian) = (watts/meter 
2
)
meter 
2
 
2-7-2. Approximate directivities.
Calculate the approximate directivity from the half-power beam widths of aunidirectional antenna if the normalized power pattern is given by: (a)
P
n
= cos
 
, (b)
P
n
 = cos
2
 
 
, (c)
P
n
= cos
3
 
 
, and (d)
P
n
= cos
n
 
 
. In all cases these patterns are unidirectional(+
 z
direction) with
P
n
having a value only for zenith angles 0
 
 
 
 
90
and
P
n
= 0 for 90
 
 
 
 
180
. The patterns are independent of the azimuth angle
 
.
Solution
:(a)
oo1HP
120602)5.0(cos2
 
,278)120(000,40
2
 D
(
ans.
)(b)
oo1HP
90452)5.0(cos2
 
, 94.4)90(000,40
2
 D
(
ans.
)

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