Chromosomes, Genes, Alleles and Mutations
4.1.1 - State that eukaryote chromosomes are made of DNAand proteins
Chromosomes are composed of two daughter chromatidswhich are joined at the centromere. Chromosomes are mainlycomprised of DNA and histone proteins
4.1.2 - Define gene, allele and genomeGene-
A gene is a heritable factor that controls a specificcharacteristic
An allele is a specific form of a gene, differing forother alleles by one or a few bases only. They occupy thesame gene locus as the other alleles on the gene
The whole of the genetic information of an organism
4.1.3 - Define gene mutation
A gene mutation is a change in the base sequence of an alleleThis may produce a different amino acid sequence in the protein translated, which may notbe beneficial. A substance that causes mutation is called a mutagen, including radiation andchemicals.
is when one of the bases is removed, changing the whole gene.
involvesthe addition of a base, which also changes the whole gene. Substitution is when a base ischanged, altering only one amino acid. However, this will still affect the shape of theprotein.