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ODMP Waste management Strategy Final 25-08-2006

ODMP Waste management Strategy Final 25-08-2006

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Published by Ase Johannessen
ODMP Waste management Strategy Final 25-08-2006
ODMP Waste management Strategy Final 25-08-2006

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Published by: Ase Johannessen on Sep 14, 2010
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10/31/2011

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North West District Council
Environmental Health DepartmentandOkavango Delta Management Plan, Project SecretariatODMP Waste Management ComponentManagement of liquid and solid waste in the Okavango DeltaRamsar Site, BotswanaTender No: NWDC/EH/04/04
WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY 
August 2006
Submitted by
aqualogic (Pty) Ltd
 
Plot 182 Unit 1 GICP GaboronePhone/Fax: 3180216 / 3180218Email:
info@aqualogic.co.bw
 
 
DOCUMENT CONTROL AND DISTRIBUTION 
Okavango Delta Ramsar Site Solid and Liquid Waste ManagementStrategy Consultancy
 
Title
WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY
Date
25-08-2006
Status
FINAL
Author
Aqualogic (Pty) Ltd
Distribution
North West District Council; ODMP Secretariat
 
Okavango Delta Ramsar Site Solid and Liquid Waste Strategy Project 
NWDC/EH/04/04
STRATEGY REPORT 
Aqualogic (Pty) LtdPlot 182 Unit 1, GICP; PO Box 403975, GaboronePhone/Fax: 31 80 216 / 31 80 218Email:info@aqualogic.co.bw
 
i
Table of Contents
1
 
INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................................................1
 1.1 P
ROJECT
S
COPE AND
O
BJECTIVES
.......................................................................................................11.2 M
ETHODOLOGY
...................................................................................................................................1
1.2.1
 
Solid waste quantity and composition..........................................................................................3 
 
1.2.2 
 
Liquid waste quantity and effluent quality....................................................................................3 
 
1.2.3 
 
Existing waste management systems and practices...................................................................3 
 
1.2.4 
 
Environmental impact of existing waste management practices.................................................4 
 
1.2.5 
 
Institutional and logistical capacity of waste management structures.........................................5 
 
1.2.6 
 
Identification of best waste management options........................................................................6 
 
2
 
WASTE MANAGEMENT POLICY AND LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK...........................................7
 2.1 W
ASTE
M
ANAGEMENT
P
OLICY
..............................................................................................................7
2.1.1
 
Botswana’s Strategy for Waste Management of 1998 ................................................................7 
 
2.1.2 
 
Botswana Policy for Wastewater and Sanitation Management of 2001......................................7 
 2.2 L
EGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK
....................................................................................................................7
3
 
DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT AREA........................................................................................9
 3.1 P
HYSICAL
B
OUNDARIES OF THE
O
KAVANGO
D
ELTA
R
AMSAR
S
ITE
..........................................................93.2 T
OPOGRAPHY
,
 
C
LIMATE
,
 
G
EOLOGY
,
 
H
YDROGEOLOGY AND
V
ULNERABILITY OF
W
ATER
...........................9
3.2.1
 
Topography..................................................................................................................................9 
 
3.2.2 
 
Climate.........................................................................................................................................9 
 
3.2.3 
 
Geology........................................................................................................................................9 
 
3.2.4 
 
Hydrogeology...............................................................................................................................9 
 
3.2.5 
 
Vulnerability of surface and groundwater ..................................................................................10 
 3.3 S
ETTLEMENT AND
P
OPULATION
P
ATTERNS
.........................................................................................113.4 E
CONOMY AND
T
OURISM
....................................................................................................................12
4
 
REVIEW OF EXISTING WASTE MANAGEMENT SITUATION......................................................14
 4.1 S
OLID
W
ASTE
....................................................................................................................................14
4.1.1
 
Household Solid Waste Quantity and Composition...................................................................14 
 
4.1.2 
 
Solid Waste from Commerce, Institutions and Tourism Operations..........................................16 
 
4.1.3 
 
Total waste generation rate .......................................................................................................16 
 
4.1.4 
 
Primary and Secondary Storage................................................................................................16 
 
4.1.5 
 
Collection ...................................................................................................................................19 
 
4.1.6 
 
Waste collection equipment performance..................................................................................20 
 
4.1.7 
 
Reuse and Recycling.................................................................................................................24 
 
4.1.8 
 
Disposal .....................................................................................................................................24 
 
4.1.9 
 
Littering ......................................................................................................................................27 
 
4.1.10 
 
Solid waste collection user fees.................................................................................................28 
 
4.1.11
 
Clinical Waste............................................................................................................................28 
 
4.1.12 
 
Emerging Issues ........................................................................................................................29 
 4.2 L
IQUID
W
ASTE
...................................................................................................................................29
4.2.1
 
Wastewater generation rates.....................................................................................................29 
 
4.2.2 
 
On-site wastewater collection and treatment systems ..............................................................29 
 
4.2.3 
 
Disposal of wastewater from on-site systems............................................................................31
 
4.2.4 
 
On-site wastewater collection user fees....................................................................................31
 
4.2.5 
 
Off-site wastewater collection and treatment systems ..............................................................32 
 
4.2.6 
 
Effluent quality ...........................................................................................................................32 
 
4.2.7 
 
Used oil generation, collection and disposal..............................................................................33 
 
4.2.8 
 
Emerging issues ........................................................................................................................34 
 4.3 E
NVIRONMENTAL
I
MPACTS OF
E
XISTING
W
ASTE
M
ANAGEMENT
P
RACTICES
..........................................34
4.3.1
 
Physical and chemical components...........................................................................................36 
 
4.3.2 
 
Biological and ecological components.......................................................................................37 
 
4.3.3 
 
Social and cultural components.................................................................................................37 
 
4.3.4 
 
Economic and operational components.....................................................................................37 
 
4.3.5 
 
Emerging Issues ........................................................................................................................37 
 4.4 I
NSTITUTIONAL AND
L
OGISTICAL
C
APACITY FOR
W
ASTE
M
ANAGEMENT
.................................................38
4.4.1
 
Environmental Health Department.............................................................................................38 
 
4.4.2 
 
Water and Wastewater Department ..........................................................................................43 
 

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