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General Piping Design

General Piping Design

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10/31/2012

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EM 1110-1-40085 May 993-1
Chapter 3General Piping Design
3-1. Materials of Construction
Most failures of liquid process systems occur at or withininterconnect points - - the piping, flanges, valves, fittings,etc. It is, therefore, vital to select interconnectingequipment and materials that are compatible with eachother and the expected environment. Materials selectionis an optimization process, and the material selected foran application must be chosen for the sum of itsproperties. That is, the selected material may not rank first in each evaluation category; it should, however, bethe best overall choice. Considerations include cost andavailability. Key evaluation factors are strength, ductility,toughness, and corrosion resistance.a. StrengthThe strength of a material is defined using the followingproperties: modulus of elasticity, yield strength, andultimate tensile strength. All of these properties aredetermined using ASTM standard test methods.The modulus of elasticity is the ratio of normal stress tothe corresponding strain for either tensile or compressivestresses. Where the ratio is linear through a range of stress, the material is elastic; that is, the material willreturn to its original, unstressed shape once the appliedload is removed. If the material is loaded beyond theelastic range, it will begin to deform in a plastic manner.The stress at that deformation point is the yield strength.As the load is increased beyond the yield strength, itscross-sectional area will decrease until the point at whichthe material cannot handle any further load increase. Theultimate tensile strength is that load divided by theoriginal cross-sectional area.b. DuctilityDuctility is commonly measured by either the elongationin a given length or by the reduction in cross-sectionalarea when subjected to an applied load. The hardness of a material is a measure of its ability to resist deformation.Hardness is often measured by either of two standardscales, Brinell and Rockwell hardness.c. ToughnessThe toughness of a material is dependent upon bothstrength and ductility. Toughness is the capability of amaterial to resist brittle fracture (the sudden fracture of materials when a load is rapidly applied, typically withlittle ductility in the area of the fracture). Two commonASTM test methods used to measure toughness are theCharpy Impact and Drop-Weight tests. The Charpybrittle transition temperature and the Drop-WeightNDTT are important design parameters for materials thathave poor toughness and may have lower operatingtemperatures. A material is subject to brittle,catastrophic failure if used below the transitiontemperature.d. Corrosion ResistanceAppendix B provides a matrix that correlates processfluids, piping materials and maximum allowable processtemperatures to assist in determining material suitabilityfor applications.e. Selection ProcessPiping material is selected by optimizing the basis of design. First, eliminate from consideration those pipingmaterials that:- are not allowed by code or standard;- are not chemically compatible with the fluid;-have system rated pressure or temperatures that do notmeet the full range of process operating conditions; and- are not compatible with environmental conditions suchas external corrosion potential, heat tracing requirements,ultraviolet degradation, impact potential and specific jointrequirements.The remaining materials are evaluated for advantages anddisadvantages such as capital, fabrication and installationcosts; support system complexity; compatibility to handlethermal cycling; and cathodic protection requirements.The highest ranked material of construction is thenselected. The design proceeds with pipe sizing, pressure-integrity calculations and stress analyses. If the selectedpiping material does not meet those requirements, then
 
EM 1110-1-40085 May 993-2the second ranked material is used and the pipe sizing,pressure has been addressed from a process requirementpressure-integrity calculations and stress analyses areviewpoint to ensure proper operation of the system as arepeated.whole. At this point in the detail design of the pipingExample Problem 1:integrity of the pipe and piping system components isAssume a recovered material process line that handlesmaintained during both normal and upset pressure andnearly 100% ethyl benzene at 1.20 MPa (174 psig) andtemperature conditions. In order to select the design25
E
C (77
E
F) is required to be installed above ground.pressure and temperature, it is necessary to have a fullThe piping material is selected as follows:understanding and description of all operating processesSolution:piping system is determined by identifying the maximumStep 1. Above ground handling of a flammable liquid bysteady state pressure, and determining and allowing forthermoplastic piping is not allowed by ASME B31.3.pressure transients.
1
Step 2. Review of the Fluid/Material Corrosion Matrixa. Maximum Steady State Pressure(Appendix B) for ethyl benzene at 25
E
C (77
E
F) indicatesthat aluminum, Hastelloy C, Monel, TP316 stainlessThe determination of maximum steady state designsteel, reinforced furan resin thermoset and FEP lined pipepressure and temperature is based on an evaluation of are acceptable for use. FKM is not available in piping.specific operating conditions. The evaluation of Step 3. Reinforced furan resin piping is available to atypically accomplished utilizing design references, codessystem pressure rating of 689 kPa (100 psig); therefore,and standards. An approach using the code requirements
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this material is eliminated from consideration. Theof ASME B31.3 for maximum pressure and temperatureremainder of the materials have available system pressureloads is used herein for demonstration.ratings and material allowable stresses greater than thedesign pressure.Piping components shall be designed for an internalStep 4. FEP lined piping is not readily availablecoincident pressure and temperature expected in normalcommercially. Since other material options exist, FEPoperation. This condition is by definition the one whichlined piping is eliminated from consideration.results in the greatest required pipe thickness and theStep 5. The site specific environmental conditions arebased on operating pressures, potential back pressures,now evaluated to determine whether any of the remainingsurges in pressures or temperature fluctuations, controlmaterials (aluminum, Hastelloy C, Monel or TP316system performance variations and process upsets muststainless steel) should be eliminated prior to ranking.be considered. The system must also be evaluated andThe material is then selected based on site specificdesigned for the maximum external differential pressureconsiderations and cost.conditions.
3-2. Design Pressure
After the piping system’s functions, service conditions,follows:materials of construction and design codes and standardshave been established (as described in Chapter 2) the- for fluid temperatures below 65
E
C (150
E
F), the metalnext step is to finalize the system operational pressuresdesign temperature of the pipe and components shall beand temperatures. Up to this point, the system operatingtaken as the fluid temperature.system, it is necessary to ensure that the structuraland control system functions. The pressure rating of aconditions must consider all modes of operation. This ispressure representing the most severe condition of 
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highest flange rating. In addition to hydraulic conditionsPiping components shall be designed for the temperaturerepresenting the most severe conditions described asASME B31.3, p. 95.
1
Schweitzer, Corrosion-Resistant Piping Systems, p. 140.
2
ASME B31.3, p. 11.
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EM 1110-1-40085 May 993-3- for fluid temperatures above 65
E
C (150
E
F), the metaldesign temperature of uninsulated pipe and componentsshall be taken as 95% of the fluid temperature, exceptflanges, lap joint flanges and bolting shall be 90%, 85%and 80% of the fluid temperature, respectively.- for insulated pipe, the metal design temperature of thepipe shall be taken as the fluid temperature unlesscalculations, testing or experience based on actual fieldmeasurements can support the use of other temperatures.- for insulated and heat traced pipe, the effect of the heattracing shall be included in the determination of the metaldesign temperature.
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In addition to the impact of elevated temperatures on theinternal pressure, the impact of cooling of gases or vaporsresulting in vacuum conditions in the piping system mustbe evaluated.b. Pressure TransientsAs discussed in Paragraph 2-5, short-term systempressure excursions are addressed either through codedefined limits or other reasonable approaches based onexperience. The ASME B31.3 qualification of acceptable pressure excursions states:
302.2.4 Allowances for Pressure and TemperatureVariations. Occasional variations of pressure or temperature, or both, above operating levels arecharacteristic of certain services. The most severeconditions of coincident pressure and temperatureduring the variation shall be used to determine thedesign conditions unless all of the following criteria aremet.(a) The piping system shall have no pressure containingcomponents of cast iron or other nonductile metal.(b) Nominal pressure stresses shall not exceed the yield strength at temperature (see para. 302.3 of this Code[ASME B31.3] and Sy data in [ASME] BPV Code,Section II, Part D, Table Y-1).(c) Combined longitudinal stress shall not exceed thelimits established in paragraph 302.3.6 [of ASME  B31.3].(d) The total number of pressure-temperaturevariations above the design conditions shall not exceed 1000 during the life of the piping system.(e) In no case shall the increased pressure exceed thetest pressure used under para. 345 [of ASME B31.3] for the piping system.(f) Occasional variations above design conditions shallremain within one of the following limits for pressuredesign.(1) Subject to the owner's approval, it is permissible toexceed the pressure rating or the allowable stress for  pressure design at the temperature of the increased condition by not more than:(a) 33% for no more than 10 hour at any one time and no more than 100 hour per year; or (b) 20% for no more than 50 hour at any one time and no more than 500 hour per year.The effects of such variations shall be determined by thedesigner to be safe over the service life of the pipingsystem by methods acceptable to the owner. (See Appendix V [of ASME B31.3])(2) When the variation is self-limiting (e.g., due to a pressure relieving event), and lasts no more than 50hour at any one time and not more than 500 hour/year,it is permissible to exceed the pressure rating or theallowable stress for pressure design at the temperatureof the increased condition by not more than 20%.(g) The combined effects of the sustained and cyclicvariations on the serviceability of all components in thesystem shall have been evaluated.(h) Temperature variations below the minimumtemperature shown in Appendix A [of ASME B31.3] arenot permitted unless the requirements of para. 323.2.2[of ASME B31.3] are met for the lowest temperatureduring the variation.
ASME B31.3, pp. 11-12.
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