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15arspc Submission 140

15arspc Submission 140

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TRACKINGGRAZINGPRESSUREANDCLIMATE INTERACTION-THEROLEOFLANDSATFRACTIONAL COVERINTIMESERIESANALYSI
PeterScart
,AchimRöde
andMichaelSchmidt 
30thAugust2010 
JointRemoteSensingResearchProgram RemoteSensingCentre,QueenslandDepartmentofEnvironmentandResourceManagement,80MeiersRoadIndooroopilly,QLD4068,AustraliCentreforSpatialEnvironmentalResearch,SchoolofGeography,PlanningandEnvironmentalManagement,The UniversityofQueensland,Brisbane,QLD4072,Australi
UniversitätTrierFBVIGeography/GeosciencesRemoteSensingDepartmentCampusIID-54286Trie
3
RemoteSensingCentre,QueenslandDepartmentofEnvironmentandResourceManagement,80MeiersRoadIndooroopilly,QLD4068,AustraliPh:+6173896962Email:peter.scarth@qld.gov.au 
Abstract 
Over60%ofQueensland'slandareaisclassiedasrangeland,areaswhicharesubjecttohighclimativariabilityandareprimarilydevotedtograzingbycattleandotherherbivores.Graziers,industryand governmentsrequirerangelandlandconditiondataatappropriatespatialandtemporalscalesforsustainableeconomicandenvironmentalmanagement,tomonitorchangesinlandconditionandfullreporting obligations.AlargebodyofworkhasbeenundertakeninAustralianrangelandsstudyingtherelation- shipbetweensatelliteimagesandeldmeasuredvegetationcoverleadingtoseveraloperationalmonitoring programs.OnesuchprogramistheQueenslandDepartmentofEnvironmentandResourceManagement'groundcovermonitoringsystemthatroutinelyproducesfractionalcoverestimatesacrossQueenslandand NewSouthWalesHowever,theinteractionbetweenclimateandmanagementinrangelandenvironmentscomplicatesthe interpretationofdataonconditionandtrend.Oneofthemostpromisingmethodstoidentifycyclesand longtermtrendsinrangelandsistoexaminetimesequencesofsatelliteimages.AccesstotheUnitedStates GeologicalSurvey(USGS)Landsatimagearchiveaordsanunprecedentednumberofimagesforuseinbotresearchandoperationalmonitoring,permittingtheeectsofclimateandmanagementtobedecoupled. Thisworkreportsontheresultsofatimeseriesanalysisbasedon15yearsofmonthlyLandsatderivefractionalcoveroveranintensivelystudiedgrazingtrialinNorthQueensland.Anumberofrangeland conditionindicatorsareexamined,includingvegetationcoverandtypeandtheirtrendsandtransitionsdutoclimateandmanagement.Theresultsdemonstrateaclearlinkbetweengrazingpressureandtheresiliencofthegrazingresourceinthepresenceofclimatevariabilityattheintrinsictemporalandspatialscalesat whichchangesoccurinthesystem.Theresultshighlighttheimportanceofadaptablelandmanagement strategiesandarebeingusedtoinformlandholders,regionalbodiesandpolicymakersonstatescalerangelanconditionandtrend. 
1Introduction 
1.1Rangelands 
Rangelandsarethoseareaswheretherainfallistooloworunreliableandthesoilstoopoortosupportregular cropping.Thisdenitioncoversabout81%ofAustraliaandincludesdiversesavannas,woodlands,shrublands, grasslandsandwetlands.RangelandsprovidesubstantialbenetstoAustralia,includingproductionofagriculturalcommodities,mineralextraction,theuseofnaturalresourcessuchaswaterforarangeofpurposes,and culturalvaluesfundamentaltoIndigenousAustralians(Bastin,2008).Rangelandsprovidesubstantialeconomibenetstothebroadercommunity,includingmuchofAustralia'smineralwealth(~$12billion/year),incomfromsheepandcattle($1.8billionin2001),othernon-pastoralagriculture($627millionin2001)andincom
 
fromtourismestimatedtoexceed$2billion(Bastin,2008).Rangelandsaresubjecttohighclimatevariabilitonseasonal,annual,decadalandlongertimescalesmakingmanagementforeconomicandenvironmentalsustainabilitydicult.Thesustainablemanagementofrangelandswouldbebetterfacilitatedbyeasyaccesstobroad scaleobjectiveinformationconcerningrangelandconditionandtrendovertime,buttheimpactsofclimateand managementinteracttocomplicateinterpretationofdataonrangelandcondition(Hilletal.,2005),problemthatcannotbesolvedthroughsimpleaggregationsincemonitoringinformationonlandconditionandtrendirequiredatmanagement-relevantscales(Wallaceetal.,2006).Theseissuesofinadequatespatialcoverageand temporalvariabilitycanbeovercomebytheuseoftime-seriesremotesensingdatawhichprovideaquantitative methodtoconsistentlyidentifytemporalchangesinrangelandvegetationatmultiplespatialscales
1.2RemoteSensing 
Landsatimagery,whichoersaconsistentbroadscalemonitoringability,isideallysuitedtomonitoringthe vastareasofAustralianrangelands,whereunderlyingtrendsinlandconditionaectedbyclimaticvariabilitmayoperateoverperiodsofadecadeormore(Pickupetal.,1998).TheLandsatsatelliteimagearchiveextendbackto1972andisunmatchedinquality,detailandcoverage(Williamsetal.,2006).Alargebodyofworkhas beenundertakeninAustralianrangelandsoverthelast25years,studyingtherelationshipsbetweenreectelightrecordedbyLandsatsatellites,andvegetationcoverasmeasuredateldsites(Bastinetal.,1998;Hassetetal.,2000;HillandKelly,1986;Jafarietal.,2007;Ludwigetal.,2007;Pechetal.,1986a;Pickupetal.,1998; Scarthetal.,2006).Foranymodernrangelandmonitoringsystem,thereisnowlittledoubtoftheneedfor theextrapolativecapacityofremotesensingtechnologycombinedwithgroundmeasurementsandobservations (Washington-Allenetal.,2006).Buttheprocessofmappingandmonitoringlandconditioninrangelandshas majorchallengesincludingsystemecienciesinconductingmonitoringovervastareas,separatingmanagement fromnaturalseasonaleects,andderivinguniversalconditionclasses(BastinandLudwig,2006).Asresultof thesechallengesthereisstillnodenitivemapofrangelandconditionacrossthegrazinglandsofQueensland
1.3Groundcove
Groundcoverinrangelandenvironmentsisvariableinspaceandtime,changinginresponsetobothclimativariationandlocalpressurefromgrazinganimalsandanthropogenicinuencesuchascroppingcycles,vegetation managementandre.Inmostnaturalsystems,groundcovercanbeclassiedintoeithergreen,deadorbarcover.Thisclassicationproblemallowsaremotesensingmixturemodellingapproachtobeused,wherethe pixelreectanceisassumedtobealinearcombinationoftheproportionalareaofeachcovertypeGarcia-Haretal.(1996).Therearemanyexamplesofspectralunmixingtolookatgroundcovercomponents.EarlyworbyPechetal.(1986b)usedimagederivedendmembersrepresenting'cover'and'greenness'tomapproportional covertypesandlandscapecomponentsacrossarangeland.ThesemethodswereextendedbyPickupetal(1998)tolookatgrazinggradientsandtheirchangesovertime.Byextendingtheconceptofgroundcoveinrangelandenvironmentstoincludephotosynthetic(green)vegetation,non-photosynthetic(dead)vegetation andbaresoil,HarrisandAsner(2003)showedhowimagingspectroscopycanbeusedtodetectnescalspatialvariationsincoverthatcanbeusedtoassesscondition.Byquantifyingatthespatialandtemporal variationinthesecomponents(Röderetal.,2007)developedanindirectindicatoroflanddegradation.Morrecentlyvariableendmembermethodssuchasthoseusedby(Robertsetal.,1998)haveprovedtobesuccessfulparticularlyincomplexurbanenvironments.Howeverthesebundlemethodsfailinrangelandenvironmentsdue tothesimilaritybetweensenescentcoverandbrightsoils(AsnerandHeidebrecht,2002),andandthesimilaritbetweenshadeanddarksoil(Okinetal.,2001)
1.4Monitoring 
TheQueenslandDepartmentofEnvironmentandResourceManagement(DERM)RemoteSensingCentr(RSC)producesaLandsatbasedgroundcoverindex(Karfsetal.,2009)thatcanbeappliedtoitsstandardisedLandsatimagearchive(deVriesetal.,2007)toproducemeaningfulgroundcoverperformanceindicatorsMorerecently,thisworkhasbeenextendedtoproducefractionalcoverestimates(Schmidtetal.,2008).The interpretationoftemporalfractionalcoverchangesinrangelandsisdicult,howeverrecentworkhasextended calibrationacrossdierentsensortypes(Röderetal.,2005),improvedgrazinggradientmethodologies(Röder etal.,2007)andhasdevelopedtechniquestomonitordynamiclandcoverandrangelandprocesses(Röderetal.2008a,b)
1.5MixtureModel
Fractionalcovermethodsrelyonhavingagoodspectrallibrarywherethespectraiscollectedeitherinthe eldspectrometerorfromtheimageitself.Thetermendmemberassumesthatitisapurecomponent,s
 
inthecaseofgroundcoverapurebarecomponenthastobepurebaresoil,apuregreencomponentcontains entirelygreenplantmaterialandadeadcomponentis100%deadleaves,senescentvegetationand/orlittewithnosoilbackgroundvisible.Itisraretondapure30mx30mLandsatpixelinheterogeneousrangeland environment.Therefore,tocharacterisetheinherentvariabilityinrangelandenvironmentsitisnecessarytdevelopmethodstoderivesyntheticendmembersfromelddatarepresentingimpurepixels.Ithasbeenshowthatalinearunmixingprocessismathematicallyequivalenttomultipleregressionwhenanimageindexisderived byregressingtheindividualbandsagainstelddata(Puyou-Lascassiesetal.,1994a;SettleandCampbell,1998)Recentworkhasalsoshownthatmultipleregressiontechniquesareveryeectiveatestimatingfoliagecoveacrosslargespatialextentswhentheinputcalibrationdatarepresentsthevariabilityinherentinthelandscape (Armstonetal.,2009).Thisworkseekstousemultipleregressionoftheelddataagainsttheimagedattoderiveendmembersthatcanthenbeusedwithinaconstrainedunmixingapproach.Sincetheregression estimatesrepresentanoptimalestimatoronlyinthetrainingsites,wecanusetheseendmemberestimatewithinaconstrainedunmixingalgorithmtoprovideabetterestimateofthecoverfractionsoutsidethetraining regions. 
1.6TimeSerie
Analysisoftimeseriesimageryisoftensuggestedtoassistintheseparationofclimatefrommanagementitheserangelandsystems(Washington-Allenetal.,2006).SeveralstudiesusingtimeseriesanalysesoffactionacoverindiceshavebeenundertakenintheAustralianenvironment.ThesestudieshaveusedeitherAVHRRwitNDVIasthecoversurrogate(e.g.Luetal.,2003)orMODISwithbothNDVIandEVIascoversurrogate(e.g.Gilletal.,2009).Oneofthelimitationsoftheseapproacheswhenappliedtoactivegrazingsystemsidrylandenvironmentsistheinsensitivityofthegreenvegetationindicestothenon-photosyntheticvegetative coverthatisfoundintheseareas.Previousworkindrylandenvironmentshasdemonstratedsomesuccessusing greencoversurrogates(e.g.Röderetal.,2008a;Stellmesetal.,2008)howeverforactivemonitoringsystemitisdesirabletoproceedusingmethodsthatcanworkonbothfractionalbaregroundandnonphotosynthetivegetation(Karfs,2009).Thisstudywillapplyatimeseriesdecompositiontothefractionalcoversderivedfrom Landsatdata.Thisseasonaldecompositionconvertsthetimeseriessignalintothreecomponentsrepresenting atrend,seasonalvariationandtheresidualnoisecomponent.Thesecomponenttimeserieswillbeanalysedon apaddockbasistodeterminetheeectsofdierentgrazingstrategiesoncovercomponents
2DataandMethod
2.1FieldDat
FielddatawascollectedoverseveralcampaignslastingfromJanuary2000untilSeptember2009.SiteswerselectedbasedonananalysisoflandtypesacrossQueensland,coupledwiththeexpertknowledgeoflocal eldocerswhopinpointedappropriatetargetsites.Thesesiteswerelocatedinbothhomogeneousand heterogeneousenvironmentsacrossbothgrazingandcroppinglands,andalsosampledarangeofoverstoretreecanopiessothatalgorithmstoremovetheeectoftreecanopiescouldbedevelopedatalaterstage.Amap ofeldsitelocationisshowninFigure1.TheeldsurveymethodandtheattributescollectedaredescribediScarthetal.(2006)
2.2ImageDat
Accuratedetectionandquanticationofvegetationchangeovertimeandspacerequiresremovaloftheconfoun- dingeectsofgeometricdistortion,radiometricvariability,illuminationgeometry,andcloud,shadowandwater contaminationfromimagery.deVriesetal.(2007)detailstheRSCpreprocessingmethodologyusedinthiwork.Toensureconsistencyintheimagetimeseries,acrosscalibrationbetweenLandsatTMandLandsat ETM+waseectedthroughtheuseofamultipleregressiontechniquewherebytwotandemsceneswereprecision rectiedandthenregressedagainsteachothertocomeupwithamultipleregressionequationthatconvertetheLandsatETM+radiancebacktoLandsatTMradiance.Theblueband(Landsatband1)wasdiscardedialltheimagesduetotheeectsofRayleighscatteringonshorterwavelengths.SignaturesforLandsatbands 2to7wereextractedfroma3x3pixelwindowsurroundingtheeldsitelocationusingthemethodoutlineinScarthetal.(2006).Signatureswereextractedfromanyimageinthedatabasewheretherewaslessthe60daysbetweenthegroundcovermeasurementandtheimageacquisition.Thenumberofdaysbetweenelandimagedatawasusedasaweightingintheregressionsincegroundcovercanchangeextremelyrapidlyafterainfalleventsorunderheavygrazingconditions.Aweightingwasalsousedtoaccountforvariationsinsitheterogeneity,accountingforthefactthatasthesiteheterogeneityincreases,thecertaintywithwhichwecan establishameancovervaluedecreases(Korbetal.,2003).Inall,968imagesignatureswereextractedanduseinthesubsequentanalysis

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