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Dotfive: Towards 0.5 TeraHertz Silicon/Germanium Heterojunction Bipolar technology (SiGe HBT)

Dotfive: Towards 0.5 TeraHertz Silicon/Germanium Heterojunction Bipolar technology (SiGe HBT)

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Published by Audrey POGET
To develop transistors functioning at 500 GHz at room temperature, a performance which is currently only possible with very expensive technology, making it difficult to integrate functionalities for large volume consumer
To develop transistors functioning at 500 GHz at room temperature, a performance which is currently only possible with very expensive technology, making it difficult to integrate functionalities for large volume consumer

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categoriesTypes, Research, Science
Published by: Audrey POGET on Sep 15, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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High-speedCommunicationRadarApplicationsmmWave,THz Imagingand Sensing
Towards 0.5 TeraHertz Silicon/Germanium Heterojunction Bipolar technology (SiGe HBT)
Brief history :Objective:
DOTFIVE is a three-years ambitious project focused on advanced RTDactivities necessary to move the Silicon/Germanium Heterojunction BipolarTransistor (HBT) into the operating frequency range of 0.5 TeraHertz (THz)(500 GigaHertz GHz).The project will enable the future developmentof communications, imaging or radar IntegratedCircuits (IC) working at frequencies up to 160GHz. For a given lithography node bipolartransistors and more recently HBTs have alwaysled the frequency race compared to MOS devices,while offering higher power density and betteranalogue performances (transconductance,noise, transistor matching).The main objective of this highly qualiedconsortium is
to establish a leadership positionfor the European semiconductor industry in thearea of millimeter wave (mmW)
by research anddevelopment work on silicon based transistordevices and circuit design capabilities andknow-how.
The invention of the transistor 60 years ago was thevehicle of a real technical, industrial and societalrevolution, all stemming from a small piece of silicon
.It was a decisive invention, without which electronicsand computing as we know it today would not exist.
Since the invention of the integrated circuit 50 yearsago enabling several transistors to be placed on a chip,the number of transistors per chip has doubled every18-24 months (Moore’s law)
. The resulting productivitygains have made the semiconductor industry a strategicindustry in the global economy.Integrated circuits, essentially based on CMOS(Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) transistortechnology, have been the driving force of this revolution,evolving from just a few transistors per chip to 1 billiontransistors on the same chip in 50 years.
In parallel to MOS transistors miniaturisation, theminiaturisation of the original bipolar transistors hasled to the development of structures known as Silicon-Germanium Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors (SiGeHBTs) whose state of the art has reached (end 2007)a maximum oscillation frequency of roughly 300 GHz(0.3 THz) at room temperature.
 The DOTFIVE project has set its goal at 500 GHz at roomtemperature.
Quasi-self-aligned SiGe HBT withcollector cavities
To develop transistors functioning at 500 GHz at room temperature, aperformance which is currently only possible with very expensive technology,making it difcult to integrate functionalities for large volume consumerapplications.
Temperature distributionHigh-frequencyon wafer probing
Towards 0.5 TeraHertz Silicon/GermaniumHeterojunction Bipolar technology (SiGe HBT)
Task 1.1:
Advanced devicesimulations and exploration of device architectures
Task 1.2:
Advanced process simulation support for WP2 and WP3
Task 1.3:
Ultimate limits analysis and reliability
TCAD and physics based predictivemodelling
Evolutionary SiGe HBT technology
Advanced SiGe HBT process modulesand architectures
Task 3.1:
Collector isolation
Task 3.2:
Advanced profle optimisation
Task 3.3:
Alternative emitter/base architectures
Task 3.4:
Benchmark circuit fabrication
Device and contact modelling,device characterization
Task 4.1:
Predictive modelling and parameter determination
Task 4.2:
Compact model development
Task 4.3:
Test structure and device characterization
 Task 2.1:
Collector modules
 Task 2.2:
Emitter modules
 Task 2.3: 
 Task 2.4:
Process integration,electrical characterizationand circuit fabrication
 Task 2.5:
Preliminary designpackage
Project management
Task 7.1:
fnancial and contractual
Task 7.2:
Task 7.3:
Overall quality and risk control
Task 7.4:
Intra-consortium communication strategy
Task 7.5:
Strategic management
Trainingand dissemination
Task 6.1:
Training activities
Task 6.2:
Animationof the dissemination
Task 5.1:
Circuit building blocks
Task 5.2:
Passives andInterconnects
Task 5.3:
Application evaluation
Application and demonstrators
Work organisation:Roadmap and ambitions:
DOTFIVE will strengthen the European semiconductor industryin the area of SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistors technology,particularly for millimetre-wave applications
, a eld in whichboth STMicroelectronics and Inneon Technologies are keyplayers. With this project, Europe will be getting ahead of theITRS roadmap, strengthening its position in an area where theexisting ecosystem is already strong.
The new transistors developedby DOTFIVE will be used fordesigning circuits enabling newmillimetre-wave applications suchas automotive radars
(77 GHz) orWLAN communications systems (60GHz – Wireless Local Area Network).In addition to these already evolvingmarkets, DOTFIVE technology setsout to be a key enabler for silicon-based millimetre wave circuits with
applications in the security, medicaland scientic areas
A higher operating speed can openup new application areas at very highfrequencies, or can be traded in forlower power dissipation, or can helpto reduce the impact of process,voltage and temperature variationsat lower frequencies for better circuitreliability.
Personal and Local AreaNetworks (PANs/LANs)
- consumer electronic devices
Consumer electronic devices
Wireless backhaul
Inter-building communication,E-band (71-76, 81-86GHz)
Secure links and surveillance
Space and inter-satellitecommunication
High-speed interconnects
Data switches (Mux/DeMux)
Analog to Digital Conversion(ADC/DAC)
Long Range Radar (LRR)
- collision avoidance, automatedcruise control (77GHz)
Short Range Radar (SRR)
- pre-crash detection, stop-and-go,lane change assistant (77-81GHz)
Road condition detection
Aviation safety in extremelypoor visibility (94GHz)
Airport ground control (94GHz)
Distance measurement
Alarm systemsand motion detection
Non-invasive imaging
Drug and explosive detection
Earth sensing and climate control
Industrial process control
Astronomy,microwave background
Medical imaging,tumor recognition
Genetic screening
mmWave,THz Imagingand Sensing
Comparison between the ITRS
and DOTFIVE roadmapsPotential to Transform Modern Information Society
International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors. The aim of the ITRS is to monitor the correct economic and technological development of integrated circuits andassociated products.
2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Peak Fmax (GHz)in production
280 305 330 350 370 390 410DOTFIVE
Peak Fmax (GHz)R&D
330 400 500500

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