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Nonlinear Connections and Nearly Autoparallel Maps in General Relativity

Nonlinear Connections and Nearly Autoparallel Maps in General Relativity

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Published by Sergiu Vacaru
Authors: H. Dehnen and S. Vacaru ;

Published: Gen. Rel. Grav. 35 (2003) 807-850
Authors: H. Dehnen and S. Vacaru ;

Published: Gen. Rel. Grav. 35 (2003) 807-850

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Published by: Sergiu Vacaru on Jul 01, 2008
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General Relativity and Gravitation, Vol. 35, No. 5, May 2003 (
Nonlinear Connections and Nearly AutoparallelMaps in General Relativity
Heinz Dehnen
and Sergiu I. Vacaru
 Received January 3, 2003
We apply the method of moving anholonomic frames with associated nonlinear con-nections to the (pseudo) Riemannian space geometry and examine the conditions whenlocally anisotropic structures (Finsler like and more general ones) could be modeled inthe general relativity theory and/or Einstein–Cartan–Weyl extensions [1]. New classesof solutions of the Einstein equations with generic local anisotropy are constructed.We formulate the theory of nearly autoparallel (na) maps generalizing the conformaltransforms and formulate the Einstein gravity theory on na–backgrounds provided witha set of na–map invariant conditions and local conservation laws. There are illustratedsome examples when vacuum Einstein fields are generated by Finsler like metrics andchains of na–maps.KEY WORDS: Anholonomic frame; Finsler metric; Einstein–Cartan–Weyl theory.
There have been constructed various classes of exact solutions of the Einsteinequations, in different dimensions, parametrized by off–diagonal metrics whichposses generic local anisotropy and depend on three and more variables [2]. Theydescribe anisotropic worm-hole and flux–tube configurations, Dirac–waves prop-agatingself–consistentlywiththreedimensionalsolitonsinanisotropicTaubNUTspacetimes, static black ellipsoid/torus solutions with polarizations of constantsandanumberofanothernonlineargravitationalandmatterfieldinteractionsand/or
Fachbereich Physik, Universit¨at Konstanz, Postfach M 677, D–78457, Konstanz, Germany; e-mail:Heinz.Dehnen@uni-konstanz.de
Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofisica - CENTRA, Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Supe-rior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, Lisboa, 1049-001, Portugal; e-mail: vacaru@fisica.ist.utl.pt;sergiu
2003 Plenum Publishing Corporation
808 Dehnen and Vacaru
static configurations subjected to some anholonomic constraints. It should be em-phasizedthatsuchsolutionscanbegeneratedevenintheframeworkofthegeneralrelativity theory if the off–diagonal metrics and anholonomic frames are intro-duced into consideration. The tangent Lorentz symmetry may be preserved fora number of solutions which can be emphasized with respect to correspondinglyadapted tetrad (vierbein) bases. For certain models with reduction from higher tolower dimensions the Lorentz symmetry may be violated in the bulk of for someparticular dimensions.With respectto anisotropiccosmologicalscenaria, wenotethattherearepos-sible effects when the anholonomic frames induce additional (to some anisotropicmatter distributions) local anisotropies which also may contribute to the cosmicbackground radiation. In order to compare the anisotropic effects of two differentorigins,itisnecessarytoperformarigorousdefinitionandanalysisoffundamentalfield equations with respect to anholonomic bases: we have dealings with modelswith constrained dynamics and ‘mixed’ holonomic and anholonomic variables.Theoriesofstrings,gravityandmatterfieldlocallyanisotropicinteractions(inbrief,weshallusesuchtermsasanisotropicgravity,anisotropicstrings,anisotropicspacetime and so on) have been elaborated following low energy limits of (super)string theory when some anholonomic (super) frame and spinor structures withassociated nonlinear connections are emphasized [3]. Such effective models areinducedinausualmannerifthe(super)frame(or,equivalently,vielbein)fieldssat-isfy some anholonomy conditions. In other turn, there were developed alternativeapproaches to anisotropic spacetimes and gravity which are grounded on Finslergeometry and generalizations without any connection to modern (super) gravityand string theories [4, 5, 6, 7]. For instance, there is a subclass of models withlocal anisotropy with violations of the local Lorentz invariance which is extendedto some transforms in Finsler geometry [8]. This introduces non infrequently themisunderstanding that an ‘unusual’ relativity is presented in all Finsler like theo-ries and lied to the misinterpretation that experimentally such Finsler spaces metrather stringent constrains [9].A surprising result is that Finsler like metrics and their generalizations couldbe found as solutions of the Einstein equations in general relativity and higherdimension gravity models (see [2] and Sections 2 and 8 in this work). The pointis to model various type of locally anisotropic structures by using anholonomicframes on (pseudo) Riemannian spacetimes. This class of anisotropic spacetimesare compatible with the paradigm of the Einstein–Lorentz–Poincare relativity andphysicalinterpretationofexperimentsinsuchcurvedspacetimeshavetobeadaptedwith respect to anholonomic frames of reference.The problem of equivalence of spaces with generalized metrics and connec-tions was considered in a series of works by E. Cartan [5, 10] who developed anunified approach to the Riemannian, affine and projective connection spaces, tofiber bundles, Finsler and another type of curved spaces by using moving frames
Nonlinear Connections and Nearly Autoparallel Maps in General Relativity 809
and differential forms. Paper [5] contains also the idea on nonlinear connection(N–connection) associated to an anholonomic frame. The global definition of N–connection is due to W. Barthel [11] and this concept was developed and appliedby R. Miron and M. Anastasiei [7] in their geometry of generalized Lagrangeand Finsler spaces modeled on vector and tangent bundles. The further geomet-ric extensions and applications in physics are connected with anholonomic (su-per) frames, metrics and connections in spinor spaces and superbundles providedwith N–connection structures and the geometry of locally anisotropic strings andgravity [3].Thefirstpurposeofthispaperistodemonstratethatanholonomicframestruc-tureswithassociatedN–connectionson(pseudo)Riemannianspacetimesdisplayanew‘locallyanisotropic’pictureoftheEinsteingravity.Hereistobenotedthattheelaboration of models with locally anisotropic interactions is considered to entailgreat difficulties because of the problems connected with the definition of conser-vation laws on spaces with local anisotropy. It will be recalled that, for instance,in special relativity the conservation laws of energy–momentum type are definedby the global group of automorphisms (the Poincare group) of the fundamen-tal Minkowski spaces. For the (pseudo) Riemannian spaces one has only tangentspace’s automorphisms and for particular cases there are symmetries generated byKilling vectors. No global or local automorphisms exist on generic anisotropicspacesandinresultofthisfacttheformulationof anisotropicconservationlawsissophisticate and full of ambiguities. Nevertheless, we shall prove that a variant of definition of energy–momentum values for gravitational and matter fields locallyanisotropic interactions is possible if we introduce moving frames and considerthat anisotropies are effectively modeled on (pseudo) Riemannian spacetimes.The second aim of this paper is to develop a necessary geometric background(the theory of nearly autoparallel maps, in brief, na–maps, and tensor integralformalism on multispaces) for formulation and a detailed investigation of conser-vation laws on locally isotropic and/or anisotropic curved spaces. We shall adaptto anisotropic spacetimes the theory of na–maps of generalized affine spaces,Einstein-CartanandEinsteinspaces,fibrebundlesanddifferentsubclassesofgen-eralizations of Finsler spaces, (see [12, 13, 14] and [15] as reviews of the secondauthor’s results published in some less accessible books and journals from formerURSS and Romania).The problem of definition of the tensor integration as the inverse operation of covariant derivation was posed and studied by A. Mo´or [16]. The tensor–integraland bitensor formalism turned out to consist in a new approach to formulationof conservation laws in general relativity [14, 15]. In order to extend the tensor–integral constructions we proposed to take into consideration nearly autoparalleland nearly geodesic [17, 15] maps (in brief, we write na–maps, ng–theory andso on) which forms a subclass of local 1–1 maps of curved spaces with deforma-tion of the connection and metric structures. The third purpose of this work is to

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