an obscured jugular furrow (the place where blood samples are taken ortranquilizers are given). The cutaneous coli muscle is much thicker thanin the horse and hides the middle third of the jugular vein. It is easier tofind the upper third of the jugular.
The nasolacrimal duct of the donkey is located on the flare of the nostrilrather than the floor of the nostril as it is in the horse (2).
Donkeys and mules are known to be very stoic animals that are slow to showpain and discomfort. While these characteristics may be desirable in manycases, it can lead to problems identifying a sick animal.The attributes we assign to a donkey being stubborn and having a lack of intelligence are actually from their natural responses to new experiences andlogical interpretation of a situation. Being tough animals, they will kick easilyand swiftly (2). Donkeys and mules are very social animals and will benefittremendously from the companionship of other animals, such as horses, cattle,sheep or goats.
Nutrition and Pasture Management
Donkeys and mules can survive on coarser pastures than a horse. Lush pasturessuitable for horses may be too rich in protein and energy and, therefore,unsuitable for donkeys. Dry matter intake of feed as a percentage of bodyweight should be 1.75%-2.25% to meet the metabolic demands for maintenancefor most donkeys and mules. Animals that are pregnant, nursing, growing, orused for heavy work, will have additional feed requirements (rolled oats, grain,hay or pasture) above their maintenance requirements (1).Donkeys allowed to graze freely on rich pastures may be prone to obesity,laminitis (founder) and hyperlipidemia (excess of fat in the blood). Whencalculating the energy demands of your donkey, it is important to know thattheir body weight cannot be estimated using a girth weight tape intended forhorses. Body condition scoring of donkeys will also require a different mind setfrom that used with horses since donkeys deposit fat somewhat differently thanhorses.Donkeys can be alternated with cattle and sheep on pasture. This managementhelps maximize pasture usage and reduces the occurrence of parasites, sincethe parasites are not generally shared between species (1,3). Sheep and/orcattle grazing pastures after donkeys consume the remaining grass along withhatched larvae that have migrated from stool clumps up to the grass blades.