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Table Of Contents

Preface to the first edition
Preface to the second edition
Glossary
1 Why SMDs?
References
2 The SMD family
2.1 Shapes,sizesand construction
2.1.1 Melfsand chips
2.2 High-pincountcomponents
2.2.1 TABs
2.2.2 Flip-chipsand BGAs
2.3 Multichip modules
2.4 The solderable surfacesofSMDs
2.4.1 Melfsand chips
2.4.2 Componentswithlegs
2.5 SMDshapesand wavesoldering behaviour
2.7 References
3 Soldering
3.1 The nature ofsoldering and ofthe soldered joint
3.1.1 The rolesofsolder, flux and heat
3.1.2 Soldering methods
3.1.3 Soldering success
3.2 The solder
3.2.1 Constituents, melting behaviourand mechanicalproperties
3.2.3 Lead-free solders
3.2.4 Solderimpurities
3.3.3 Mechanicalpropertiesofsoldered joints
3.3.4 Soldering on surfacesotherthan copper
3.3.5 Long-term behaviourofsoldered joints
3.3.6 Long-term reliability ofsoldered joints
3.4 The flux
3.4.1 Tasksand actionofthe soldering flux
3.4.2 Wetting and interfacialtension
3.4.3 Propertiesrequired in a flux
3.4.4 Rosin fluxes
3.4.5 Low-solidsand no-cleanfluxes
3.4.6 Watersoluble fluxes
3.4.7 Solventsused in fluxes
3.4.8 Flux standards
3.4.9 Testing soldering fluxes
3.5 Soldering heat
3.5.2 Heating options
3.6 Solderability
3.6.1 Wetting and dewetting
3.6.2 Capillarity and itseffects
3.6.3 Capillarity and joint configuration
3.6.4 The importance ofsolderability
3.6.5 Oxide layers
3.6.6 Solderability-enhancing surface coatings
3.6.8 Measuring solderability
3.7 References
4 Wavesoldering
4.1 The wave concept
4.1.1 Wavesoldering before SMDs
4.3.1 Heatrequirements
4.3.2 Heatemittersand theircharacteristics
4.3.3 Temperature control
4.4 The solderwave
4.4.1 Constructionofthe soldering unit
4.4.2 Thermalrole ofthe solderwave
4.4.4 Chipwaves
4.5 Wavesoldering in an oxygen-free atmosphere
4.5.1 Originsand development
4.5.2 Wavesoldering in nitrogen
4.6 Board conveyorsystems
4.6.1 Functionalrequirements
4.6.2 Board-handling systems
4.7 Wavesoldering practice
4.7.1 Operating parametersand theirrole
4.7.2 Choosing and monitoring operating parameters
4.7.3 Optimizing machine parameters
4.7.4 Machine maintenance
4.7.5 Check-analysisofthe solderbath
4.7.6 Dealing with dross
4.7.7 Hygiene and safety
4.8 The role ofadhesivesin wavesoldering
4.8.1 Demandson the adhesive and the glued joint
4.8.2 Storage and handling behaviourofadhesives
4.8.3 Applying the adhesive
4.8.4 Curing the adhesive joint
4.8.5 The glasstransition temperature
5 Reflowsoldering
5.1 The reflow concept
5.1.1 SMDsand reflowsoldering
5.1.2 Reflowsoldering versuswavesoldering
5.2 Solderpaste
5.2.1 Operationalrequirements
5.2.2 Standard specifications
5.2.3 Solderpowder
5.2.4 The flux and itsresidue
5.2.5 Printing and dispensing properties
5.2.6 The solderballtest
5.3 Putting the solderpaste on the board
5.3.1 Single-spotdispensing
5.3.2 Stencilling and screen printing
5.4 Vapourphase soldering
5.4.1 The basic concept
5.4.2 Vapourphase working fluids
5.4.3 The physicsofvapourphase soldering
5.4.4 Vapourphase soldering equipment
5.4.5 ‘New-generation’vapourphase soldering systems
5.5 Infrared soldering
5.5.1 Working principle
5.5.4 Operationofinfrared ovens
5.5.5 Oven design
5.5.6 Infrared soldering in a controlled atmosphere
5.6.1 Convectionversusradiation
5.6.2 The physicsofconvectionreflowsoldering
5.6.3 Convectionreflow ovens
5.6.4 Developmentpotentialofconvectionreflowsoldering
5.6.5 Convectionsoldering ofsingle components
5.7 Lasersoldering
5.7.1 How a laserworks
5.7.2 Nd:YAG and CO2 lasers
5.7.3 Lasersoldering in practice
5.7.4 Laser-soldering equipment
5.8 Impulse soldering
5.8.1 Operating principle
5.8.2 The solderdepot
5.8.3 The thermode and itsheating cycle
5.8.4 Impulse-soldering equipment
5.10 References
6 The circuit board
6.1 The beginnings
6.2 SMD-specific demandsona circuitboard
6.3 Thermalmanagement
6.3.1 Thermalexpansionmismatch
6.4 Solderable surfaces
6.4.1 Galvanic coatings
6.4.2 Hottinning
6.4.3 Organic coatings
6.5 The soldermask
6.6 Layout
6.6.1 Layoutforwavesoldering
6.6.2 Layoutforreflowsoldering
6.7 References
7 Component placement
7.1 The task
7.2 Reliability ofplacement
7.3 Placementoptions
7.3.1 Fully manualplacement
7.3.2 Semi-automatic placement
7.3.3 Fully automatic sequentialsystems
7.3.4 Simultaneousplacementsystems
7.4 The practice ofautomatic componentplacement
7.4.1 The range ofchoice
7.5 Reference
8 Cleaning aftersoldering
8.1 Basic considerations
8.1.1 Reasonsforcleaning
8.1.2 Designing forcleanability
8.1.3 Whatmustbe removed?
8.2 The theory ofcleaning
8.2.1 The physicsofcleaning
8.2.2 The chemistry ofcleaning
8.3.1 Organic solvents
8.3.2 Solvent-cleaning installations
8.3.3 In-line cleaning plants
8.3.4 Halogenated solvents:safety and health
8.3.5 The three environmentalthreats
8.3.6 Restrictionson solventusage
8.3.7 Non-flammable organic solventswith reduced environmentalrisks
8.3.8 Flammable solvents
8.4 Cleaning with water
8.4.2 Waterquality
8.4.3 Waterrecycling and effluent problems
8.4.4 Removalofresidue from watersoluble fluxes
8.4.5 Removalofresidue from resinousfluxes
8.4.6 Waterwashing installations
8.5 Semi-aqueouscleaning
8.5.1 The concept
8.5.2 The cleaning solvents
8.5.3 Semi-aqueouswashing installationsforwater-immiscible solvents
8.5.4 Semi-aqueouswashing installationsforwater-miscible solvents
8.6 Testing forcleanliness
8.6.1 The meaning ofcleanliness
8.6.2 Measuring ionic contamination(MILtest)
8.6.3 Measuring surface insulation resistance (SIR)
8.7 The future ofcleaning and offluxing
8.8 References
9 Quality control and inspection
9.1 The meaning of‘quality’
9.1.1 Productquality and productreliability
9.1.2 Classificationaccording to reliability requirements
9.2 Soldering successand soldering perfection
9.2.1 Soldering successand soldering faults
9.5.1 When to inspect
9.5.2 Visualinspection
9.5.3 Automated opto-electronic inspection
9.5.4 X-ray inspection
9.5.5 Electronic inspection
9.5.6 Thermographic inspection
9.6 References
10 Rework
10.1 The unavoidability ofrework
10.1.1 Rework in the productionprocess
10.1.2 Desoldering and resoldering
10.2 Basic considerations
10.2.1 Metallurgicaland mechanicalconsequencesofrework
10.2.3 Lessonsto be learned
10.3 Rework equipment
10.3.1 Heatsources
10.3.2 Rework stations
10.4 Rework tasksand procedures
10.4.1 Removing bridgesand solderballs
10.4.2 Desoldering SMDs
10.4.4 Resoldering SMDs
10.4.5 Cleaning afterrework
10.4.6 Semi-mechanized work stations
10.5 Integrating rework into the productionprocess
10.5.1 Rework personnel
10.5.2 Closed-loop soldering
10.6 References
Index
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SMT Soldering Handbook

SMT Soldering Handbook

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Published by neozen

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Published by: neozen on Sep 15, 2010
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11/24/2012

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