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IB Chem, Topic 10, Organic Quiz 1 Review

IB Chem, Topic 10, Organic Quiz 1 Review

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1http://guidesbyjulie.blogspot.com/IB Chemistry: Topic 10: Organic Chemistry
Organic Quiz One, Review
Be familiar with the following—while the quiz may not cover all of the topics, everything below is basicallywhat has been covered in the course as of yet. Refer to previous guides for additional details on certainmaterials.POTENTIAL TOPICS
 
Nomenclature: be able to draw structures, given a name; or vice versa
 
Homologous series: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes
 
Hydrocarbons: physical/chemical characteristics
o
 
Saturated versus Unsaturated
o
 
Substituent groups—alkyls
o
 
Benzene
o
 
Cyclic Forms
 
Functional Groups
o
 
Alcohol
o
 
Halide
o
 
Ester
o
 
Ketone
o
 
Amide
o
 
Amine
 
Combustion
 
Video Clip
Homologous Series 
 A homologous serieshomologous serieshomologous serieshomologous series is one in which all the members have the same general formula. The neighboringmembers in one series differ by one —CH
2
— and show similar chemical properties and a gradation in theirphysical properties.AlkanesAlkanesAlkanesAlkanes follow the general formula

and consists solely of single bonds.AlkenesAlkenesAlkenesAlkenes follow the general formula

and contain at least one carbon-carbon double bond. Note thatmore complex alkenes will have more than one carbon-carbon double bond. The general formula only refersto alkenes with one double bond.AlkynesAlkynesAlkynesAlkynes follow the general formula

and contain at least one carbon-carbon triple bond.
Hydrocarbons 
 As their name suggestions, hydrocarbonshydrocarbonshydrocarbonshydrocarbons are organic compounds containing exclusively hydrogen andcarbon atoms. Hydrocarbons are divided into aliphatic compounds and aromatic compounds. AromaticAromaticAromaticAromaticstructuresstructuresstructuresstructures contain benzene rings or similar structures, while aliphatic compoundsaliphatic compoundsaliphatic compoundsaliphatic compounds do not incorporatearomatic rings.
 
2http://guidesbyjulie.blogspot.com/IB Chemistry: Topic 10: Organic Chemistry
Organic Quiz One, Review
When compared to other organic materials, hydrocarbons are relatively unreactive. However, mosthydrocarbons are flammable, burning in oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water vapor. They will alsoundergo substitution reactions in the presence of ultraviolet light. Hydrocarbons with double bonds willundergo addition reactions.SaturatedSaturatedSaturatedSaturated hydrocarbons have the maximum number of hydrogen atoms possible—alkanes are saturated.UnsaturatedUnsaturatedUnsaturatedUnsaturated hydrocarbons do not have the maximum number of hydrogen atoms. Alkanes and alkynes areexamples of unsaturated hydrocarbons.Alkyl groupsAlkyl groupsAlkyl groupsAlkyl groups are another way to refer to substituent groups, or branches from the parent chain. Oneexample of an alkyl is a methyl group, which has the formula CH
3
. The name of these branches typically gobefore the parent chain (e.g. methylpropane).The benzenebenzenebenzenebenzene ring contains 6 carbon atoms and 6 hydrogen atoms—one would expect it to have threecarbon-carbon double bonds. However, its unexpected stability is due to its resonance structure: its bondsare intermediate between a typical single bond and double bond.Benzene can be depicted in various ways: as either drawing alternating doublebonds or using a hexagon and drawing a circle in the center to represent thedelocalized electrons.CycloalkanesCycloalkanesCycloalkanesCycloalkanes have the general formula

, as compared to thealkanes’ general formula of

. The additional carbon-carbon bondreduces the amount of hydrogen atoms. Cycloalkanes are saturated.Examples of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons are cyclopentene andcyclobutene.An alternative way to depict cyclic forms is to use the condensedstructure, which uses basic shapes—each vertex represents a carbonatom.
 
3http://guidesbyjulie.blogspot.com/IB Chemistry: Topic 10: Organic Chemistry
Organic Quiz One, Review
Functional Groups 
 NameNameNameName FormulaFormulaFormulaFormula PrefixPrefixPrefixPrefix SuffixSuffixSuffixSuffixAlcoholAlcoholAlcoholAlcohol Hydroxy- -OlHalogenHalogenHalogenHalogen F-Cl-Br-I-Fluoro-Chloro-Bromo-Iodo-N/AEsterEsterEsterEster N/A -OateAldehydeAldehydeAldehydeAldehyde Oxo- -AlKetoneKetoneKetoneKetone Oxo- -OneAmineAmineAmineAmine Amino- -AmineAmideAmideAmideAmide N/A -Amide
Combustion 
Combustion of hydrocarbons is the burning of hydrocarbon in the presence of oxygen gas. It is anexothermic reaction that produces heat, carbon dioxide, and water.Complete combustion occurs when there is sufficient oxygen available and produces a blue flame.Combustion is a type of redox reaction: carbon is oxidized and oxygen is reduced.Incomplete combustion occurs when there is insufficient oxygen available. A smoky, yellow flame isproduced, along with carbon, carbon monoxide, and other hydrocarbons that did not completely burn. Theblack soot is carbon and the yellow flame comes from glowing carbon atoms.Carbon monoxide is toxic for humans because it binds to the hemoglobin in red blood cells in thespots where oxygen usually binds. Unlike oxygen, it is never released and can cause suffocation ifenough sites on the hemoglobin are blocked.Unburned hydrocarbons can also react with other molecules in the air, such as nitrogen dioxide,creating ozone, which is toxic for humans to breathe. Particulates in the air from unburnedhydrocarbons can also impair breathing ability.To balance combustion reactions, first balance the carbons and then balance the hydrogens. If an oddnumber of oxygen molecules are necessary, double all coefficients in the reaction.

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