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Fracture Report

Fracture Report

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Published by eros_mimi

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Published by: eros_mimi on Sep 16, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Introduction to fracture
Bones form the skeleton of the body and allow the body to be supported against gravityand to move and function in the world. Bones also protect some body parts, and the bonemarrow is the production center for blood products.Bone is not a stagnant organ. It is the body's reservoir of calcium and is alwaysundergoing change under the influence of hormones. Parathyroid hormone increases  blood calcium levels by leeching calcium from bone, whilecalcitoninhas the oppositeeffect, allowing bone to accept calcium from the blood.A
is a medical condition that occurs when a person’s  bonesare subject to cracks or breakage. While fractures are known as broken bones, the term“break” does not form part of the medical terminology used in orthopedics.Many fractures are caused by a high force, stress or strong impact on the  bone. Fractures occur as a result of traumas caused by falls, car accidents, or injuriesfrom playing sports. Sometimes fractures may be a result of diseases such asosteoporosis, a condition characterized by “porous” bones, osteogenesisimperfecta, and some types of cancer. Overuse may also lead to stress fractures,which are manifested by miniature cracks appearing on the surface of the bone.There are various classifications of fractures based on the characteristics of eachinjury. A closed fracture is a fracture where a person’s skin remains intact. Openor compound fractures involve a wound caused when the fractured bone punctures the surrounding skin. This kind of fracture carries a high risk of infection as the open wound exposes the fractured bone to all kinds of contamination. Open or compound fractures are considered medical emergenciesthat need immediate surgical and antibiotic treatment to remove all traces of dirt,dead tissue, and contaminants.Simple fractures are a classification of fractures that occur on one line of the bone, splitting it into two, while the injured bone splitting into many different pieces characterizes multi-fragmentary fractures. Doctors find it easier to treat asimple closed fracture, as this kind of bone injury presents a better prognosiscompared to an open or compound multi-fragmented fracture that is likely to beexposed to contaminationA compression fracture is a kind of fracture that occurs in the bones of the spine,or the vertebrae. Due in part to osteoporosis, the front portion of a person’svertebra may collapse due to the brittleness of the bones and despite the absenceof any trauma. Complete fractures are another type of fracture wherein bonesegments separate completely from one another, while an incomplete fracturecharacterizes a type of fracture where fragments of the bone remain partially
 joined.Other types of bone fractures are linear fractures that occur parallel to the longaxis of a bone, and a transverse fracture occurs at right angles to the long axis of a bone. On the other hand, fractures that are diagonal to the bone’s long axis arecalled oblique fractures. A spiral fracture is characterized a twisted bone, and acompacted fracture occurs when bone fragments are wedged into one another due to a forceful impact.A person who has a fracture will exhibit a misshapen limb or a joint that may look out-of-place. There may be swelling, bleeding, or bruising on area of theskin surrounding the fracture, and the affected person may experience intense pain. Numbness and tingling may also accompany this injury, as well as alimited scope of motion or the inability to fully move the affected limb.Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to weaken, become brittle and more easily breakableSymptoms of FracturesLocal pain Local bleeding Local swellingDeformity or dislocation Symptoms of  associated nerve damage:
Fractures: Types list
The list of types of Fractures mentioned in various sources includes:
Simple fracture - does not break the skin.
- a fracture breaking the skin;also called "open fracture".
Greenstick fracture - a bend-like fracture in children.
Stress fracture - a fracture caused by repeated stress to the bone.
- a fracture caused byunderlying diseases. 
Complicated fracture - also damaging nearby tissues.
Depressed fracture - skull fracture with bone forced inwards.
Comminuted fracture - multiple fractures and associated tissue damage toa single bone.

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