Indicators of De-motivated Staff
High level of absenteeismPoor performanceAccidentsPoor response
Types of Motivation
Intrinsic (built-in) MotivationSelf-Generated factors like feeling responsibility, Personal behavior etc.
Extrinsic MotivationWhat is done by others to motivate people through rewards, Punishments etc
Theories of MotivationI.Instrumentality Theory
It assumes that a person will be motivated to work if rewards and penalties are tied directlyto his / her performance. This theory is based on “Scientific Management Methods” byTaylor.
BackgroundAt the beginning of the 20
century, U.S.A. has a rapid expansion in industries. Atthat time, there was few training programme for workers. Most of the decisions in production were in the hands workers and foremen. Management did notunderstand the situation at the assembly lines and allowed wasteful practices tocontinue.
Aim of theoryTaylor’s scientific principles were designed to reduce inefficiency of workers andmanagers.
Taylor Scientific ApproachTaylor worked to highlight the best way to increase the performance and productivity by rewarding workers financially. (How did he discover that what the best way was of carrying out a task? Go to Page 227)(Pay workers on the basis of results – based on the theory of economic man)
ProblemsProblem with Taylor’s approach is that as Individuals are different and so there isno guarantee that the theory will suit every one. Also, Taylor ignored factors other than money e.g. social factors, human needs etc.
II.Content (needs) Theory
The basis of this theory is the belief that an unsatisfied
creates tension and state of disequilibrium. To restore the balance, a
that will satisfy the needs is identified, and a behavior pathway that will lead to the achievement of the goal is selected. Not all needs are equally important for a person at any time. Some may provide a muchmore powerful drive towards a goal than other, depending on the individual’s backgroundand present situation.There is no simple relationship between needs and goals. The same need can besatisfied by a number of different goals. At the same time, one goal may satisfy a number of other needs.Example: A new car provides transport as well as an opportunity to impress neighbors.
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
The most famous classification of needs is the one formulated by Maslow (1954). (See page 229 in text book figure 13.2.)Maslow’s theory of motivation states that when a lower need is satisfied, the next highest becomes dominant and then people turn their attention towards satisfying that need.Maslow said “Man is a wanting animal”. Only unsatisfied needs can motivate behavior andthe dominant need is the primary motivator of behavior.