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Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

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Published by: snpjavier on Sep 16, 2010
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CHINESE GENERAL HOSPITALCOLLEGE OF NURSING AND LIBERAL ARTS
SAN LAZARO HOSPITAL
ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROMESUBMITTED TO: SIR GIO and MR MAPUESUBMITTED BY: Javier, Sarah Nicole P.Ong, Rosemarie M.CGHCNLA, IV-B
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
 
INTRODUCTION
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a disease of the humanimmune systemcaused by thehuman immunodeficiency virus(HIV). This condition progressively reduces the effectiveness of the immune system and leavesindividuals susceptible toopportunistic infectionsandtumors. HIV istransmitted  through direct contact of amucous membraneor the bloodstream with abodily  fluidcontaining HIV, such asblood,semen,vaginal fluid,preseminal fluid, and breast milk. This transmission can involveanal,vaginalororal sex,blood  transfusion, contaminatedhypodermic needles, exchange between mother and baby duringpregnancy,childbirth,breastfeedingor other exposure to one of the above bodily fluids.AIDS is now apandemic. In 2007, it was estimated that 33.2 million peoplelived with the disease worldwide, and that AIDS killed an estimated 2.1 millionpeople, including 330,000 children. Over three-quarters of these deaths occurred insub-Saharan Africa.Genetic researchindicates that HIV originated in west-central Africa duringthe late nineteenth or early twentieth century. AIDS was first recognized by the U.S.Centers for Disease Control and Preventionin 1981 and its cause, HIV, identified inthe early 1980s.Although treatments for AIDS and HIV can slow the course of the disease,there is currently no known cure orvaccine.Antiretroviraltreatment reduces both themortalityand the morbidity of HIV infection, but these drugs are expensive androutine access to antiretroviralmedicationis not available in all countries. Due tothe difficulty in treating HIV infection, preventing infection is a key aim in controllingtheAIDS pandemic, with health organizations promotingsafe sexandneedle- exchange programsin attempts to slow the spread of the virus.Objectives:
After the report, we will be able to know more information about the disease,its causes and mode of transmission, diagnosis and treatment.
We will also be familiarize with the signs and symptoms that the patientmight have during occurrence of the disease.
We will also be able to know the appropriate management of the patient withthe said disease.
We will also be able to teach client how to prevent the spread of the disease.
 
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)HIV
is the
h
uman
i
mmunodeficiency
v
irus. It isthe virus that can lead to
a
cquired
i
mmune
d
eficiency
s
yndrome, or
AIDS
. AIDS is the latestage of HIV infection, when a person’s immunesystem is severely damaged and has difficulty fightingdiseases and certain cancers.
HIV /AIDS
Chronic disease that depresses immune function
Characterized by opportunistic infections when T4/CD4 count drops <200
MOT
– sexual contact with infected – unprotected,injection of blood/products, placental transmission
Manifestations
Minor signs – cough for one month, general pruritus, recurrent herpes zoster,oral candidiasis, generalized lymphadenopathy
Major signs – loss of weight 10% BW, chronic diarrhea 1month up, andprolonged fever one month up.
Clinical Manifestations
Persistent lymphadenopathy
leukopenia
PCP(
Pneumocystitis cariniiPneumonia
)
Kaposi’s sarcoma
Malaise, weight loss
Diarrhea
Fatigue
Night sweats
Localized candida
Bacterial infections
 TB
Neurologic symptoms
Diagnostic Tests
CD4 counts of 200 or less
ELISA
Western Blot
CD4 count
Viral load testing
Home test kits
Treatment
Started in CD4 counts of <200
Viral load >10,000 copies
All symptomatic regardless of counts
Note: CD4 reflects immune system destruction. Viral load- degree of viralactivity
Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTI)
o
Blocks reverse transcriptase
o
Acts by binding directly to the reverse transcriptase enzyme
o
Not used alone
o
Rapid development of resistance

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