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9701 y07 as (Support Booklet)

9701 y07 as (Support Booklet)

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Published by: ღ♪♫ღ ᾟÜßß₳Ƙ ღ♫♪ღ on Sep 16, 2010
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05/22/2014

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A Level Science ApplicationsSupport Booklet:
Chemistry
http://www.xtremepapers.net
 
 
A Level Science Applications Support Booklet: Chemistry
Contents
INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................................................1
 
1 THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE.............................................................................................................2
 
1.1 – Introduction................................................................................................................................2
 
1.2 – Protein chemistry.......................................................................................................................6
 
Proteins – the workhorses of life.....................................................................................................6
 
Amino acids – the building blocks of proteins.................................................................................7
 
Structure – the key to protein function..........................................................................................10
 
Enzymes – Nature’s catalysts.......................................................................................................16
 
1.3 – Genetic information..................................................................................................................27
 
DNA – the source of heredity........................................................................................................27
 
The structure of DNA....................................................................................................................29
 
The structure of RNA....................................................................................................................31
 
Gene expression...........................................................................................................................32
 
Mutations.......................................................................................................................................38
 
1.4 – ATP, Life’s energy currency.....................................................................................................43
 
1.5 Metals in biological systems....................................................................................................45
 
Iron and the haem proteins...........................................................................................................45
 
Zinc as an enzyme cofactor..........................................................................................................46
 
Sodium and potassium ion transfer across cell membranes.........................................................46
 
Toxic trace metals in the environment..........................................................................................47
 
Conclusion....................................................................................................................................48
 
1.6 – Revision self-assessment questions........................................................................................49
 
1.7 Key definitions.........................................................................................................................51
 
1.8 – Resources................................................................................................................................54
 
2 – APPLICATIONS OF ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY..........................................................................55
 
2.1 – Introduction..............................................................................................................................55
 
Astrobiology..................................................................................................................................55
 
2.2 – Determining structures.............................................................................................................56
 
Mass Spectrometry.......................................................................................................................56
 
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.....................................................................62
 
2.3 – Separating and identifying substances....................................................................................80
 
The partition of a solute between two immiscible solvents...........................................................80
 
Chromatography...........................................................................................................................83
 
Gas/liquid chromatography (GLC)................................................................................................87
 
High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)........................................................................89
 
Applications of Chromatography in Analysis.................................................................................90
 
Electrophoresis.............................................................................................................................91
 
Factors affecting mobility..............................................................................................................93
 
Some medical applications of gel electrophoresis........................................................................94
 
Other types of electrophoresis......................................................................................................94
 
Genetic fingerprinting....................................................................................................................95
 
2.4 – Examples of applications of analytical chemistry...................................................................100
 
Three methods of dating using mass spectrometry....................................................................100
 
The use of combined GLC-MS in environmental monitoring......................................................101
 
2.5 Key definitions.......................................................................................................................104
 
2.6 – Resource list..........................................................................................................................107
 
3 – MATERIALS AND DESIGN..........................................................................................................108
 
3.1 – Introduction............................................................................................................................108
 
3.2 – Medicinal chemistry and drug delivery...................................................................................111
 
Designing drugs..........................................................................................................................111
 
Delivering drugs..........................................................................................................................113
 
3.3 – Properties of polymers...........................................................................................................116
 
Addition polymerisation...............................................................................................................116
 
 
 Condensation polymerisation......................................................................................................116
 
Spider Silk...................................................................................................................................117
 
Plastics that conduct electricity or emit light................................................................................118
 
3.4 – Nanotechnology.....................................................................................................................122
 
What is nanotechnology?............................................................................................................122
 
Buckyballs – a new allotrope of carbon.......................................................................................123
 
Quantum dots..............................................................................................................................126
 
Promise and possible problems of nanotechnology....................................................................127
 
3.5 – Environment and energy........................................................................................................129
 
Chemistry to overcome environmental problems........................................................................129
 
Trouble in the stratosphere – replacing CFCs............................................................................130
 
Green Chemistry and Sustainability............................................................................................131
 
Chemistry for energy...................................................................................................................134
 
3.6 Key definitions.......................................................................................................................138
 
3.7 – Resources..............................................................................................................................139
 
Nanotechnology worksheet.........................................................................................................140
 
4 – SPECIMEN EXAMINATION QUESTIONS...................................................................................144
 

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