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Ellipsoidal, Cylindrical, Bipolar and Toroidal Wormholes in 5D GravityRatings: (0)|Views: 182|Likes: 4

Published by Sergiu Vacaru

Authors: S. Vacaru and D. Singleton ;

Published: , J. Math. Phys. 43 (2002) 2486-2504

Published: , J. Math. Phys. 43 (2002) 2486-2504

Authors: S. Vacaru and D. Singleton ;

Published: , J. Math. Phys. 43 (2002) 2486-2504

Published: , J. Math. Phys. 43 (2002) 2486-2504

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/3759539/Ellipsoidal-Cylindrical-Bipolar-and-Toroidal-Wormholes-in-5D-Gravity

05/24/2012

text

original

Ellipsoidal,cylindrical,bipolarandtoroidalwormholesin5Dgravity

Sergiu I. Vacaru

Physics Department, CSU Fresno, Fresno, California 93740-8031and Centro Multidisciplinar de Astroﬁsica—CENTRA, Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, Lisboa, 1049-001, Portugal

D. Singleton

Physics Department, CSU Fresno, Fresno, California 93740-8031

Received 16 October 2001; accepted for publication 26 December 2001

In this article we construct and analyze new classes of wormhole and ﬂux tubelikesolutions for the 5D vacuum Einstein equations. These 5D solutions possess ge-neric local anisotropy which gives rise to a gravitational running or scaling of theKaluza–Klein ‘‘electric’’ and ‘‘magnetic’’ charges of these solutions. It is alsoshown that it is possible to self-consistently construct these anisotropic solutionswith various rotational 3D hypersurface geometries

i.e., ellipsoidal, cylindrical,bipolar and toroidal

. The local anisotropy of these solutions is handled using thetechnique of anholonomic frames with their associated nonlinear connection struc-tures

S. Vacaru, Ann. Phys.

N.Y.

256

, 39

1997

; Nucl. Phys. B

434

, 590

1997

;J. Math. Phys.

37

, 508

1996

; J. High Energy Phys.

09

: 011

1998

; Phys. Lett. B

498

, 74

2001

. Through the use of the anholonomic frames the metrics are diago-nalized, in contrast to holonomic coordinate frames where the metrics would haveoff-diagonal components. In the local isotropic limit these solutions are shown tobe equivalent to spherically symmetric 5D wormhole and ﬂux tubesolutions. ©

2002 American Institute of Physics.

DOI: 10.1063/1.1467967

I.INTRODUCTION

The ﬁrst solutions describing black holes and wormholes in 4D and higher dimensionalgravity were spherical symmetric solutions with diagonal metrics.

1

Later Salam, Strathee andPerracci

2

showed that including off-diagonal components in higher dimensional metrics is equiva-lent to including gauge ﬁelds. They concluded that geometrical gauge ﬁelds could act as sourcesof exotic matter necessary for the construction of a wormhole. References 3 and 4 examinedlocally isotropic solutions with off-diagonal metric components for 5D vacuum Einstein equations.These solutions were similar to spherically symmetric 4D wormhole or ﬂux tube metrics with‘‘electric’’ and/or ‘‘magnetic’’ ﬁelds running along the throat of the wormhole. These ‘‘electro-magnetic’’ ﬁelds arose as a consequence of the off-diagonal elements of the metric. By varyingcertain free parameters of the off-diagonal elements of the 5D metrics it was possible to changethe relative strengths of the ﬁelds in the wormhole’s throat, and to change the longitudinal andtransverse size of the wormhole’s throat. In Ref. 5 we constructed

anisotropic

wormhole and ﬂuxtube solutions, which reduced to the solutions of Refs. 3 and 4 in the isotropic limit. The anisot-ropy of these metrics was handled using the method of anholonomic frames with associatednonlinear connections, which has been developed by one of the authors

SV

in Refs. 6 and 7. Itwas shown that these anisotropic solutions exhibited a variation or running of the ‘‘electromag-netic’’ parameters as a result of the angular anisotropies and/or through variations of the extraspatial dimension.In this article we extend the investigation of Ref. 5 by applying the anholonomic framesmethod to construct anisotropic wormhole and ﬂux tube solutions to 5D Kaluza-Klein theorywhich possess a range of different symmetries

elliptic, cylindrical, bipolar, toroidal

. We willdiscuss the physical consequences of these solutions, in particular the variation of the ‘‘electro-

JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS VOLUME 43, NUMBER 5 MAY 2002

24860022-2488/2002/43(5)/2486/19/$19.00 © 2002 American Institute of Physics

Downloaded 24 Nov 2005 to 139.57.131.77. Redistribution subject to AIP license or copyright, see http://jmp.aip.org/jmp/copyright.jsp

magnetic’’ parameters

e.g., the ‘‘electric’’ and ‘‘magnetic’’ charges associated with the solutions

.This variation of the ‘‘electromagnetic’’ charges, which here occurs in the context of a higherdimensional gravity theory, can be likened to the variation or running of electric charge that occurswhen a real electric charge is placed into some dielectric medium or in a quantum vacuum wherequantum ﬂuctuations produce a scale dependent electric charge. We will sometimes loosely referto this gravitational variation of the ‘‘electromagnetic’’ parameters of the solutions as the gravita-tional running, scaling or renormalization of the charges of the solutions.

II.ANHOLONOMICFRAMESAND5DVACUUMEINSTEINEQUATIONS

In this section we outline the basic formulas for 5D Einstein gravity, and introduce the methodof anholonomic frames. We construct locally anisotropic metrics which are generalizations of those considered in Ref. 5. These 5D metrics have a mixture of holonomic and anholonomicvariables, and are most naturally dealt with using anholonomic frames. Finally we analyze thephysical and mathematical properties of these 5D, locally anisotropic vacuum solutions.

A.Metricansatz

Let us consider a 5D pseudo-Riemannian space–time of signature (

,

,

,

,

) and de-note the local coordinates

u

(

x

i

,

y

a

)

(

x

1

,

x

2

,

x

3

,

y

4

s

,

y

5

p

), or more compactly

u

(

x

,

y

),where the Greek indices are split into two subsets

x

i

holonomic coordinates

and

y

a

anholo-nomic coordinates

labeled respectively by Latin indices

i

,

j

,

k

, . . .

1,2,3 and

a

,

b

, . . .

4,5. Thelocal coordinate bases,

(

i

,

a

), and their duals,

d

(

d

i

,

d

a

), are written respectively as

du

i

dx

i

,

a

dy

a

1

and

d

du

d

i

dx

i

,

d

a

dy

a

.

2

We can treat an arbitrary coordinate,

x

i

or

y

a

, as spacelike (

x

,

y

,

z

), timelike (

t

) or as the ﬁfthspatial coordinate

. The aim is then to study anisotropies and anholonomic constraints forvarious coordinates.With respect to the coordinate frame base

2

the 5D pseudo-Riemannian metric

dS

2

g

du

du

3

with its metric coefﬁcients

g

parametrized as

g

1

w

12

h

4

n

12

h

5

w

1

w

2

h

4

n

1

n

2

h

5

w

1

w

3

h

4

n

1

n

3

h

5

w

1

h

4

n

1

h

5

w

1

w

2

h

4

n

1

n

2

h

5

g

2

w

22

h

4

n

22

h

5

w

2

w

3

h

4

n

2

n

3

h

5

w

2

h

4

n

2

h

5

w

1

w

3

h

4

n

1

n

3

h

5

w

3

w

2

h

4

n

2

n

3

h

5

g

3

w

32

h

4

n

32

h

5

w

3

h

4

n

3

h

5

w

1

h

4

w

2

h

4

w

3

h

4

h

4

0

n

1

h

5

n

2

h

5

n

3

h

5

0

h

5

.

4

The ansatz functions of this metric are smooth function of the form

g

1

1,

g

2,3

g

2,3

x

2

,

x

3

2,3

exp

2

b

2,3

x

2

,

x

3

,

5

h

4,5

h

4,5

x

2

,

x

3

,

s

exp

2

f

4,5

x

2

,

x

3

,

s

,

6

w

1

w

1

x

2

,

w

2,3

w

2,3

x

2

,

x

3

,

s

,

n

1

n

1

x

2

,

n

2,3

n

2,3

x

2

,

x

3

,

s

;

2487J. Math. Phys., Vol. 43, No. 5, May 2002 Wormholes in 5D gravity

Downloaded 24 Nov 2005 to 139.57.131.77. Redistribution subject to AIP license or copyright, see http://jmp.aip.org/jmp/copyright.jsp

The ansatz functions of the metric are taken to depend on two isotropic variables (

x

2

,

x

3

) and onone anisotropic variable,

y

4

s

.Metric

3

can be greatly simpliﬁed into the form

S

2

g

ij

x

dx

i

dx

i

h

ab

x

,

s

y

a

y

b

,

7

with diagonal coefﬁcients

g

ij

1 0 00

g

2

00 0

g

3

and

h

ab

h

4

00

h

5

8

if instead of coordinate bases

1

and

2

one used anholonomic frames

anisotropic bases

du

i

i

N

ib

u

b

,

a

dy

a

9

and

u

i

dx

i

,

a

dy

a

N

k a

u

dx

k

,

10

where the

N

-coefﬁcients are parametrized as

N

14

w

1

,

N

2,34

w

2,3

and

N

15

n

1

,

N

2,35

n

2,3

.They deﬁne an associated nonlinear connection

N-connection

structure

see Refs. 6 and 7

. Here,we shall not emphasize the N-connection formalism. The anisotropic frames

9

and

10

areanholonomic because, in general, they satisfy some anholonomic relations,

W

,with nontrivial anholonomy coefﬁcients

W

ijk

0,

W

aik

0,

W

abk

W

abc

0,

11

W

ija

ija

,

W

bja

b

N

ja

,

W

iab

a

N

jb

,where

ija

j

N

ia

i

N

ja

.Conventionally, the N-coefﬁcients decompose space–time objects

e.g., tensors, spinors and con-nections

into objects with mixed holonomic-anholonomic characteristics. The holonomic parts of an object are indicated with indices of type

i

,

j

,

k

, . . . , while the anholonomic parts have indicesof type

a

,

b

,

c

, . . . . Tensors, metrics and linear connections with coefﬁcients deﬁned with respectto anholonomic frames

9

and

10

are distinguished

d

by N-coefﬁcients into holonomic andanholonomic subsets and are called d-tensors, d-metrics and d-connections.

B.Einsteinequationsinholonomic-anholonomicvariables

The main ‘‘trick’’ of the anholonomic frames method for integrating Einstein’s equations ingeneral relativity and various

super

string and higher/lower dimension gravitational theories is toﬁnd the coefﬁcients

N

ja

such that the block matrices

g

ij

and

h

ab

are diagonalized.

6,7

This greatlysimpliﬁes computations. With respect to such anholonomic frames the partial derivatives areN-elongated

locally anisotropic

.

2488 J. Math. Phys., Vol. 43, No. 5, May 2002 S. I. Vacaru and D. Singleton

Downloaded 24 Nov 2005 to 139.57.131.77. Redistribution subject to AIP license or copyright, see http://jmp.aip.org/jmp/copyright.jsp

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