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Ellipsoidal, Cylindrical, Bipolar and Toroidal Wormholes in 5D Gravity

Ellipsoidal, Cylindrical, Bipolar and Toroidal Wormholes in 5D Gravity

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Published by Sergiu Vacaru
Authors: S. Vacaru and D. Singleton ;

Published: , J. Math. Phys. 43 (2002) 2486-2504
Authors: S. Vacaru and D. Singleton ;

Published: , J. Math. Phys. 43 (2002) 2486-2504

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Published by: Sergiu Vacaru on Jul 01, 2008
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Ellipsoidal,cylindrical,bipolarandtoroidalwormholesin5Dgravity
Sergiu I. Vacaru
Physics Department, CSU Fresno, Fresno, California 93740-8031and Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofisica—CENTRA, Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, Lisboa, 1049-001, Portugal
D. Singleton
Physics Department, CSU Fresno, Fresno, California 93740-8031
Received 16 October 2001; accepted for publication 26 December 2001
In this article we construct and analyze new classes of wormhole and flux tubelikesolutions for the 5D vacuum Einstein equations. These 5D solutions possess ge-neric local anisotropy which gives rise to a gravitational running or scaling of theKaluza–Klein ‘electricand ‘magnetic’’ charges of these solutions. It is alsoshown that it is possible to self-consistently construct these anisotropic solutionswith various rotational 3D hypersurface geometries
i.e., ellipsoidal, cylindrical,bipolar and toroidal
. The local anisotropy of these solutions is handled using thetechnique of anholonomic frames with their associated nonlinear connection struc-tures
S. Vacaru, Ann. Phys.
N.Y.
256
, 39
1997
; Nucl. Phys. B
434
, 590
1997
;J. Math. Phys.
37
, 508
1996
; J. High Energy Phys.
09
: 011
1998
; Phys. Lett. B
498
, 74
2001

. Through the use of the anholonomic frames the metrics are diago-nalized, in contrast to holonomic coordinate frames where the metrics would haveoff-diagonal components. In the local isotropic limit these solutions are shown tobe equivalent to spherically symmetric 5D wormhole and flux tubesolutions. ©
2002 American Institute of Physics.
DOI: 10.1063/1.1467967
I.INTRODUCTION
The first solutions describing black holes and wormholes in 4D and higher dimensionalgravity were spherical symmetric solutions with diagonal metrics.
1
Later Salam, Strathee andPerracci
2
showed that including off-diagonal components in higher dimensional metrics is equiva-lent to including gauge fields. They concluded that geometrical gauge fields could act as sourcesof exotic matter necessary for the construction of a wormhole. References 3 and 4 examinedlocally isotropic solutions with off-diagonal metric components for 5D vacuum Einstein equations.These solutions were similar to spherically symmetric 4D wormhole or flux tube metrics with‘‘electric’’ and/or ‘‘magnetic’’ fields running along the throat of the wormhole. These ‘‘electro-magnetic’’ fields arose as a consequence of the off-diagonal elements of the metric. By varyingcertain free parameters of the off-diagonal elements of the 5D metrics it was possible to changethe relative strengths of the fields in the wormhole’s throat, and to change the longitudinal andtransverse size of the wormhole’s throat. In Ref. 5 we constructed
anisotropic
wormhole and fluxtube solutions, which reduced to the solutions of Refs. 3 and 4 in the isotropic limit. The anisot-ropy of these metrics was handled using the method of anholonomic frames with associatednonlinear connections, which has been developed by one of the authors
SV
in Refs. 6 and 7. Itwas shown that these anisotropic solutions exhibited a variation or running of the ‘‘electromag-netic’’ parameters as a result of the angular anisotropies and/or through variations of the extraspatial dimension.In this article we extend the investigation of Ref. 5 by applying the anholonomic framesmethod to construct anisotropic wormhole and flux tube solutions to 5D Kaluza-Klein theorywhich possess a range of different symmetries
elliptic, cylindrical, bipolar, toroidal
. We willdiscuss the physical consequences of these solutions, in particular the variation of the ‘‘electro-
JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS VOLUME 43, NUMBER 5 MAY 2002
24860022-2488/2002/43(5)/2486/19/$19.00 © 2002 American Institute of Physics
Downloaded 24 Nov 2005 to 139.57.131.77. Redistribution subject to AIP license or copyright, see http://jmp.aip.org/jmp/copyright.jsp
 
magnetic’’ parameters
e.g., the ‘‘electric’’ and ‘‘magnetic’’ charges associated with the solutions
.This variation of the ‘‘electromagnetic’’ charges, which here occurs in the context of a higherdimensional gravity theory, can be likened to the variation or running of electric charge that occurswhen a real electric charge is placed into some dielectric medium or in a quantum vacuum wherequantum fluctuations produce a scale dependent electric charge. We will sometimes loosely referto this gravitational variation of the ‘‘electromagnetic’’ parameters of the solutions as the gravita-tional running, scaling or renormalization of the charges of the solutions.
II.ANHOLONOMICFRAMESAND5DVACUUMEINSTEINEQUATIONS
In this section we outline the basic formulas for 5D Einstein gravity, and introduce the methodof anholonomic frames. We construct locally anisotropic metrics which are generalizations of those considered in Ref. 5. These 5D metrics have a mixture of holonomic and anholonomicvariables, and are most naturally dealt with using anholonomic frames. Finally we analyze thephysical and mathematical properties of these 5D, locally anisotropic vacuum solutions.
A.Metricansatz
Let us consider a 5D pseudo-Riemannian space–time of signature (
,
,
,
,
) and de-note the local coordinates
u
 
(
 x
i
,
 y
a
)
(
 x
1
,
 x
2
,
 x
3
,
 y
4
s
,
 y
5
 p
), or more compactly
u
(
 x
,
 y
),where the Greek indices are split into two subsets
x
i
holonomic coordinates
and
y
a
anholo-nomic coordinates
labeled respectively by Latin indices
i
,
 j
,
, . . .
1,2,3 and
a
,
b
, . . .
4,5. Thelocal coordinate bases,
 
 
(
 
i
,
 
a
), and their duals,
 
(
i
,
a
), are written respectively as
 
 
 
du
 
 
i
 
dx
i
,
 
a
 
dy
a
1
and
 
du
 
i
dx
i
,
a
dy
a
.
2
We can treat an arbitrary coordinate,
x
i
or
y
a
, as spacelike (
 x
,
 y
,
 z
), timelike (
) or as the fifthspatial coordinate
 
. The aim is then to study anisotropies and anholonomic constraints forvarious coordinates.With respect to the coordinate frame base
2
the 5D pseudo-Riemannian metric
dS
2
g
 
du
 
du
 
3
with its metric coefficients
g
 
parametrized as
g
1
w
12
h
4
n
12
h
5
w
1
w
2
h
4
n
1
n
2
h
5
w
1
w
3
h
4
n
1
n
3
h
5
w
1
h
4
n
1
h
5
w
1
w
2
h
4
n
1
n
2
h
5
g
2
w
22
h
4
n
22
h
5
w
2
w
3
h
4
n
2
n
3
h
5
w
2
h
4
n
2
h
5
w
1
w
3
h
4
n
1
n
3
h
5
w
3
w
2
h
4
n
2
n
3
h
5
g
3
w
32
h
4
n
32
h
5
w
3
h
4
n
3
h
5
w
1
h
4
w
2
h
4
w
3
h
4
h
4
0
n
1
h
5
n
2
h
5
n
3
h
5
0
h
5
.
4
The ansatz functions of this metric are smooth function of the form
g
1
1,
g
2,3
g
2,3
 x
2
,
 x
3
 
2,3
exp
2
b
2,3
 x
2
,
 x
3
,
5
h
4,5
h
4,5
 x
2
,
 x
3
,
s
exp
2
4,5
 x
2
,
 x
3
,
s
,
6
w
1
w
1
 x
2
,
w
2,3
w
2,3
 x
2
,
 x
3
,
s
,
n
1
n
1
 x
2
,
n
2,3
n
2,3
 x
2
,
 x
3
,
s
;
2487J. Math. Phys., Vol. 43, No. 5, May 2002 Wormholes in 5D gravity
Downloaded 24 Nov 2005 to 139.57.131.77. Redistribution subject to AIP license or copyright, see http://jmp.aip.org/jmp/copyright.jsp
 
The ansatz functions of the metric are taken to depend on two isotropic variables (
 x
2
,
 x
3
) and onone anisotropic variable,
y
4
s
.Metric
3
can be greatly simplified into the form
 
S
2
g
ij
 x
dx
i
dx
i
h
ab
 x
,
s
 
 y
a
 
 y
b
,
7
with diagonal coefficients
g
ij
1 0 00
g
2
00 0
g
3
and
h
ab
h
4
00
h
5
8
if instead of coordinate bases
1
and
2
one used anholonomic frames
anisotropic bases
 
 
 
du
 
 
i
 
i
 N 
ib
u
 
b
,
 
a
 
dy
a
9
and
 
 
 
u
 
 
i
dx
i
,
 
a
dy
a
 N 
a
u
dx
,
10
where the
-coefficients are parametrized as
 N 
14
w
1
,
2,34
w
2,3
and
15
n
1
,
2,35
n
2,3
.They define an associated nonlinear connection
N-connection
structure
see Refs. 6 and 7
. Here,we shall not emphasize the N-connection formalism. The anisotropic frames
9
and
10
areanholonomic because, in general, they satisfy some anholonomic relations,
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  
 
 
,with nontrivial anholonomy coefficients
ij
0,
ai
0,
ab
abc
0,
11
ija

ija
,
bja
 
b
 N 
 ja
,
iab
 
a
 N 
 jb
,where
ija
 
 j
 N 
ia
 
i
 N 
 ja
.Conventionally, the N-coefficients decompose space–time objects
e.g., tensors, spinors and con-nections
into objects with mixed holonomic-anholonomic characteristics. The holonomic parts of an object are indicated with indices of type
i
,
 j
,
, . . . , while the anholonomic parts have indicesof type
a
,
b
,
c
, . . . . Tensors, metrics and linear connections with coefficients defined with respectto anholonomic frames
9
and
10
are distinguished
d
by N-coefficients into holonomic andanholonomic subsets and are called d-tensors, d-metrics and d-connections.
B.Einsteinequationsinholonomic-anholonomicvariables
The main ‘‘trick’’ of the anholonomic frames method for integrating Einstein’s equations ingeneral relativity and various
super
string and higher/lower dimension gravitational theories is tofind the coefficients
 ja
such that the block matrices
g
ij
and
h
ab
are diagonalized.
6,7
This greatlysimplifies computations. With respect to such anholonomic frames the partial derivatives areN-elongated
locally anisotropic
.
2488 J. Math. Phys., Vol. 43, No. 5, May 2002 S. I. Vacaru and D. Singleton
Downloaded 24 Nov 2005 to 139.57.131.77. Redistribution subject to AIP license or copyright, see http://jmp.aip.org/jmp/copyright.jsp

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