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Exact Solutions with Noncommutative Symmetries in Einstein and Gauge Gravity

Exact Solutions with Noncommutative Symmetries in Einstein and Gauge Gravity

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Published by Sergiu Vacaru
Author: Sergiu I. Vacaru ;

Published: J. Math. Phys. 46, 042503 (2005) (47 pages)
Author: Sergiu I. Vacaru ;

Published: J. Math. Phys. 46, 042503 (2005) (47 pages)

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Published by: Sergiu Vacaru on Jul 01, 2008
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ExactsolutionswithnoncommutativesymmetriesinEinsteinandgaugegravity
Sergiu I. Vacaru
a
 Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de InvestigacionesCientificas, Calle Serrano 123, Madrid 28006, Spain
Received 27 July 2004; accepted 22 December 2004; published online 21 March 2005
We present new classes of exact solutions with noncommutative symmetries con-structed in vacuum Einstein gravity
in general, with nonzero cosmological con-stant
, five-dimensional
5D
gravity and
anti
de Sitter gauge gravity. Such solu-tions are generated by anholonomic frame transforms and parametrized by genericoff-diagonal metrics. For certain particular cases, the new classes of metrics haveexplicit limits with Killing symmetries but, in general, they may be characterizedby certain anholonomic noncommutative matrix geometries. We argue that differentclasses of noncommutative symmetries can be induced by exact solutions of thefield equations in commutative gravity modeled by a corresponding moving realand complex frame geometry. We analyze two classes of black ellipsoid solutions
in the vacuum case and with cosmological constant
in four-dimensional gravityand construct the analytic extensions of metrics for certain classes of associatedframes with complex valued coefficients. The third class of solutions describes 5Dwormholes which can be extended to complex metrics in complex gravity modelsdefined by noncommutative geometric structures. The anholonomic noncommuta-tive symmetries of such objects are analyzed. We also present a descriptive accounthow the Einstein gravity can be related to gauge models of gravity and their non-commutative extensions and discuss such constructions in relation to the Seiberg–Witten map for the gauge gravity. Finally, we consider a formalism of vielbeinsdeformations subjected to noncommutative symmetries in order to generate solu-tions for noncommutative gravity models with Moyal
star
product. ©
2005 American Institute of Physics.
DOI: 10.1063/1.1869538
I.INTRODUCTION
In the last 15 years much effort has been made to elaborate a consistent formulation of noncommutative gravity theory generalizing the standard Einstein theory but up to now the prob-lem is quite difficult to approach
see, for instance, Refs. 1–8 for details related to existingmodels
. The proposed theories are for the spaces with Euclidean signatures, and, in general, resultin models of complex gravity in noncommutative spaces provided with complex and/or nonsym-metric metrics and anholonomic frames. There were also derived some effective noncommutativegravity models from string/brane theory, by considering quantum group structures and/or byproposing noncommutative gaugelike generalizations of gravity.In this paper, we pursue the idea that noncommutative geometric structures are present in theEinstein, five-dimensional
in brief, 5D
gravity and gauge gravity models. Such noncommutativesymmetries are emphasized if the anholonomic moving frames
9–12
are introduced into consider-ation. This hidden noncommutativity is nontrivial for various classes of generic off-diagonalmetrics admitting effective diagonalizations by anholonomic transforms with associated nonlinearconnection structure.
13–19
The metrics may be subjected to the condition to define exact solutions
a
Electronic mail: vacaru@imaff.cfmac.csic.es and sergiu
vacaru@yahoo.com
JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS
46
, 042503
2005
46
, 042503-10022-2488/2005/46
4
 /042503/47/$22.50 © 2005 American Institute of Physics
Downloaded 24 Nov 2005 to 139.57.131.77. Redistribution subject to AIP license or copyright, see http://jmp.aip.org/jmp/copyright.jsp
 
of the vacuum field equations with certain possible extensions to matter sources. The noncommu-tative anhlonomic geometries can be derived even from the commutative general relativity theoryand admit a natural embedding into different models of complex noncommutative gravity. Themetric and frame
vielbein
coefficients corresponding to off-diagonal solutions depend on two,three or four variables and define space–times with associated noncommutative symmetries. Suchclasses of exact solutions are very different from the well-known examples of metrics with Killingsymmetry
like the Schwarzschild or Kerr–Newmann solutions; see a detailed analysis in Ref. 20
.Our aim is to prove, by constructing and analyzing three classes of exact solutions, that certainnoncommutative geometric structures can be defined in the framework of the Einstein
in general,with the cosmological term
and 5D gravity. We emphasize classes of anholonomic real andcomplex deformations of metrics possessing associated noncommutative symmetries. Contrary toother approaches to noncommutative gravity and field interactions theory elaborated by substitut-ing the commutative algebras of functions with noncommutative algebras and/or by postulatingany complex noncommutative relations for coordinates, we try to derive noncommutative struc-tures from associated symmetries of metrics and frames subjected to anholonomy relations. Weshall propose a classification of such space–times and state a method of complexification of exactsolutions preserving the noncommutative symmetry for black hole and wormhole metrics in realand complex gravity.The study of anholonomic noncommutative symmetries of gravitational field interactions ismore involved in the moving frame formalism conventionally adapted to equivalent redefinitionsof the Einstein equations as Yang–Mills equations for nonsemisimple gauge groups like in thePoincare gauge gravity.
21,22
This construction has direct generalizations to various type of gaugegravity models with nondegenerate metrics in the total bundle spaces, in both commutative andnoncommutative forms.
23–29,6
The connection between the general relativity theory and gaugegravity models is emphasized in order to apply and compare with a set of results from noncom-mutative gauge theory.Among our static solutions we find geometries having a structure as have Schwarzschild,Reissner–Nordstrem, and
anti
de Sitter spaces but with the coefficients redefined
with certainpolarization constants
with respect to anholonomic real/complex frames which make possibledefinition of such objects in noncommutative models of gravity. There are equally interestingapplications to black hole physics, quantum gravity, and string gravity.Next, the emerged anholonomic noncommutative symmetries of off-diagonal metrics pre-scribe explicit rules of deformation the solutions on small noncommutative parameters and con-nect the results to quantum deformations of gravity and gauge models. So, even a generallyaccepted version of noncommutative gravity theory has been not yet formulated, we know how togenerate particular classes of real and complex stable metrics with noncommutative symmetriesand possessing properties very similar to the usual black hole and wormhole solutions. In particu-lar, we present a systematic procedure for constructing exact solutions both in commutative andnoncommutative gravity models, to define black hole and wormhole objects with noncommutativesymmetries and quantum corrections. We are able to investigate the physical properties of suchobjects subjected to certain classes of anholonomic and/or quantum deformations.The paper is organized as follows.We begin in Sec. II with a brief introduction into the geometry of space–times provided withanholonomic frame structure and associated nonlinear connections. Such geometries are charac-terized by corresponding anholonomy relations induced by nonlinear connection coefficients re-lated to certain off-diagonal metric components. This also induces a corresponding noncommuta-tive space–time structure.In Sec. III, we illustrate that such noncommutative anholonomic geometries can be associatedeven to real space–times and that a simple realization holds within the algebra for complexmatrices. We emphasize that a corresponding noncommutative differential calculus can be derivedfrom the anholonomy coefficients deforming the structure constants of the related Lie algebras.Section IV is devoted to a rigorous analysis of two classes of static black ellipsoid solutions
the first and second type metrics defining, respectively, four-dimensional
4D
vacuum Einstein
042503-2 Sergiu I. Vacaru J. Math. Phys.
46
, 042503
2005
Downloaded 24 Nov 2005 to 139.57.131.77. Redistribution subject to AIP license or copyright, see http://jmp.aip.org/jmp/copyright.jsp
 
and induced by cosmological constant configurations
. We prove that such metrics can be com-plexified in order to admit associated complex frame/nonlinear connection structures inducingnoncommutative matrix geometries and show how analytic extensions of such real and complexi-fied space–times can be constructed.In Sec. V, a class of 5D wormhole solutions with anisotropic elliptic polarizations is consid-ered for the 5D gravity. We argue that such generic off-diagonal metrics may be also complexifiedas to preserve the wormhole configurations being additionally characterized by complex valuedcoefficients for the associated nonlinear connection. Such objects possess the same noncommuta-tive symmetry for both types of real and complex solutions.Section VI is a discussion of how the Einstein gravity and its higher dimension extensions canbe incorporated naturally into commutative and noncommutative gauge models. A new point isthat the proposed geometric formalism is elaborated in order to include anholonomic complexvielbeins.In Sec. VII, we define the Seiberg–Witten map for the de Sitter gauge gravity and state aprescription how the exact solutions possessing anholonomic noncommutative symmetries can beadapted to deformations via star products with noncommutative relations for coordinates.We conclude and discuss the results in Sec. VIII. For convenience, we summarize the neces-sary results from Refs. 13–19 and 30–32 in Appendixes A–C and state some definitions on “star”products and enveloping algebras in Appendix D.
II.OFF-DIAGONALMETRICSANDANHOLONOMICFRAMES
We consider a
n
+
m
-dimensional space–time manifold
n
+
m
provided with a
pseudo
Rie-mannian metric
g
=
g
 
and denote the local coordinates
u
=
 x
,
 y
, or in component form,
u
 
=
 x
i
,
 y
a
, where the greek indices are conventionally split into two subsets,
x
=
 x
i
and
y
=
 y
a
,labelled, correspondingly, by italic indices of type
i
,
 j
,
,...=1,2,...,
n
, and
a
,
b
,...=1,2,...,
m
. In general, the geometric objects on such space–times may possess some nontrivialKilling symmetries
the Killing case is emphasized by the condition
L
 X 
g
=0, where
L
 X 
is the Liederivative with respect to a vector field
on
n
+
m
, see, for instance, Ref. 20
or some deforma-tions of such symmetries, for instance, by frame transforms. The space–times may have someadditional frame structures with associated nonlinear connection, bundle structure, and even non-trivial torsions being adapted to the frame structure.We shall define our constructions for a general metric ansatz of type
g
=
g
 
 
u
 
u
 
=
g
ij
 x
d
 x
i
d
 x
 j
+
h
ab
 x
,
v
 
 y
a
 
 y
b
1
with respect to a locally adapted basis
d
 x
i
,
 
 y
a
, where the Einstein’s summation rule is appliedand by
v
we emphasize the dependence on a so-called anisotropic coordinate from the set
 y
a
.The local basis
e
 N 
=
 
=
 
u
=
d
 x
i
,
 
 y
a
=
d
 x
i
,d
 y
a
= d
 y
a
+
ia
 x
,
v
d
 x
i
2
called to be
-elongated; we shall provide an additional index
 N 
if necessary to distinguish suchobjects
is dual to the local basis
e
 
 N 
=
 
a
=
  
u
a
=
 
 
 x
i
=
  
 x
i
ia
 x
,
v
  
 y
a
,
  
 y
b
.
3
We consider an off-diagonal metric ansatz for
1
having the components
gˆ 
 
=
g
ij
+
ia
 N 
 jb
h
ab
 je
h
ae
 N 
ie
h
be
h
ab
.
4
So, we can write equivalently
g
=
gˆ 
 
d
u
 
d
u
 
if the metric is rewritten with respect to the localdual coordinate basis d
u
=
d
 x
i
,d
 y
a
, the dual to
 
 / 
 
u
 
=
 
 / 
 
 x
i
,
 
 / 
 
 y
b
defined correspondinglyby usual partial derivatives and differentials
.
042503-3 Exact solutions with noncommutative symmetries J. Math. Phys.
46
, 042503
2005
Downloaded 24 Nov 2005 to 139.57.131.77. Redistribution subject to AIP license or copyright, see http://jmp.aip.org/jmp/copyright.jsp

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