probabilities, notcertainties that things exist as we perceive them. In fact, our act ofobservation changes their properties. Our
, a view outside the system ofour inquiry that enables us to understand the complete workings of the system, is foreverlost. Thus, “
corresponds to the way we perceive objects.”
“Themodel that explains the most about our present observation, including the historical andgeological evidence, is the best representation we have of the past.”
(2)The universe that humans presently inhabit was created 13.7 billion years ago.
(3)The universe that humans can presently observe is made up of three spacial dimensionsand one dimension of time.
and is best described by thelaws of General Relativity for macroscales and quantum physics for microscales. What ispresently missing is a theory of quantum gravity, a law that explains what happens tospacetime at very small scales around the Plank length (a billion-trillion-trillionth of acentimeter; 10
Presently, the best guess for what happens “when theuniverse was small enough to be governed by both general relativity and quantum theory”is that “there were effectively four dimensions of space and none of time.... our usual ideasof space and time do not apply to the very early universe.”
(4)Very early on in the life of our universe, a period of spacetime inﬂation occurred. Thisinﬂation was comparable to blowing up a one centimeter indiameter coin to ten milliontimes the width of the Milky Way. This spacetime inﬂation of the universe occurred in muchless than a nanosecond and is the reason it appears that all galaxies we can observe aremoving away from us and thosegalaxies furthest away are moving faster than thosecloser.
The process that describes the origin of the universe is called the “big bang.”
(5)“Universes in which life can exist are rare.... if the universe were only slightly different,beings like us could not exist.”
The Copernican principle suggests that “in the grandscheme of things, everything we know points towards human beings not occupying aprivileged position” in our universe.
There may exist as many as 10
self-consistentworlds in the universe, each with randomly selected constants of nature and differing lawsof physics and forces of Nature. All the possible sates deﬁning the laws and constants ofphysics that our small bubble universe that we inhabit could potentially be part of is knownas the
(6)The arrow of time points in only one direction on a macroscale. This is due to the secondlaw of thermodynamics that says that under normal conditions the entropy of a systemalways increases.
THE WHOLE SHEBANG: THE BIG BANG THEORY OF OUR UNIVERSE
Lyle Brecht Draft 2.3 Monday, October 24, 2011 APPLIED ECOLOGY RESEARCH
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