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Classical Mechanics QuizRatings:

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/377297/Classical-Mechanics-Quiz

11/27/2012

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Sample Quiz 1, Physics 5011, Fall, 2007

Instructions: This is a closed book exam. Calculators are not permitted (note that any numericalanswers required can be done to order-of-magnitude accuracy). Do each problem on the sheetsof paper provided. Make sure your name and ID number are on every sheet, so they can beidentified if they become separated. After you are done, staple together all of your sheets.1. (30 pts.) A sphere of mass

m

and radius

a

rolls without slipping inside a spherical shell of radius

R

(with

R

>

a

) under the influence of a uniform gravitational force. Assuming that allof the motion occurs in one vertical plane, set up appropriate generalized coordinates for this problem and determine the Lagrangian and any constraint conditions. Determine theequations of motion and find the frequency of small oscillations for this system. (Hint: recallthat

I

= (2/5)

ma

2

for a sphere.)2. (30 pts.) Consider a particle of mass

m

and angular momentum

l

that moves in a central forcefield that has the form

F

= –

mk

r

. (a) Find the total energy and sketch the effective potentialfor this particle, and determine the radius and period of a circular orbit. (b) Suppose that theorbit is almost circular. Show that the particle reaches its closest distance to the center twice per orbit (or equivalently, that the frequency of small oscillations about the circular orbit istwice the orbital frequency).3. (40 pts.) Consider a symmetrical top (

I

1

=

I

2

≠

I

3

) with no torques acting upon it. (a) Writedown the Lagrangian for this top in terms of the Euler angles and determine two constants of motion associated with the generalized momenta of

φ

and

ψ

. Find the equation of motion for

θ

, and show that steady precession (constant

θ

) is possible when

331

/cos

I I

ϕ = ω θ

. (b)Show that one of the two constants of motion in part (a) corresponds to the angular momentum around the body

z

′

axis and the other corresponds to the fixed

z

axis. (Hint:Determine the angular momentum vector in body coordinates, and perform the coordinatetransformation to find the

z

component in the fixed coordinates.)

Physics 5011, Quiz 1, October 6, 2006

Important formulas:

(Note that not all formulas are valid in all cases. Also,tensors are denoted by a double arrow above the symbol rather than a doubleunderline)

2

12

T mv m V V d

= = = × = −∇ = − ⋅

∫

pvLrpFFr

i i i ii ii cm cmi

m m M m M M

= = =

∑ ∑∑

rvRV

Constraints:0

i ij ij ji j j j

d L L L T V a a dqdt q q

⎛ ⎞∂ ∂= − − = λ =⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟∂ ∂⎝ ⎠

∑ ∑

2

j j j j j

L p h p q L l mr q

∂= = − = θ∂

∑

( )( )

22222

1

dV ud u m mu f u udu r d l u l

+ = − = − =θ

[ ]

22maxminmaxmin222maxmin

/21cos()1221

r r r r mk k l mk Elu e a e E r r l e mk

+ −′= + θ−θ = = − = = = ++−

cot22sin

k b dbb E d

Θ= σ =Θ Θ

( )

111

i ij j ji ik jk ijijij ik jl kl

v A v A A A B A A B

− −−

′ ′= ⋅ = = = = δ′ ′= ⋅ ⋅ =

vAvAAABABA

coscoscossinsincossincoscossinsinsinsincoscossincossinsincoscoscoscossinsinsinsincoscos

ψ ϕ− θ ϕ ψ ψ ϕ+ θ ϕ ψ ψ θ⎛ ⎞⎜ ⎟= − ψ ϕ− θ ϕ ψ − ψ ϕ+ θ ϕ ψ ψ θ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟θ ϕ − θ ϕ θ⎝ ⎠

A

1

coscoscossinsinsincoscossincossinsincossincoscossinsinsincoscoscossincossinsincossincos

−

ψ ϕ− θ ϕ ψ − ψ ϕ− θ ϕ ψ θ ϕ⎛ ⎞⎜ ⎟= ψ ϕ+ θ ϕ ψ − ψ ϕ+ θ ϕ ψ − θ ϕ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ψ θ ψ θ θ⎝ ⎠

A

sinsincoscossinsinsincossinsinsincoscoscos

x x y y z z

′′′

ω = ϕ θ ψ+θ ψ ω = θ ϕ+ψ θ ϕω = ϕ θ ψ−θ ψ ω = θ ϕ−ψ θ ϕω = ϕ θ+ψ ω = ψ θ+ϕ

( ) ( )

fix body fix body

d d dt dt

⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞= + × = + ×⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠

uuu

ω

( )

2

eff

m m

= − × − × ×

FFvr

ωω

( )

32

12

d r r T

⎡ ⎤= ρ − = ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅⎣ ⎦

∫

Ir1rrLII

ωω

( )

2

cm cm cm cm i i ijk j k k i

M R I I N

= + − ω +ε ω ω =

II1RR

( )

( ) ( )

222213

11sincoscos22

L I I V

= θ +ϕ θ + ψ+ϕ θ − θ

Math:Binomial Theorem:

( )( ) ( ) ( )

2

11...111......2!

pn

p p p p p n x px x xn

− − − ++ = + + + + +

Taylor expansion:

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

( )

( )

2

000...0...2!

nn

x x f x f xf f f n

′ ′′= + + + + +

Divergence Theorem:

3

ˆ

d x da

∇⋅ = ⋅

∫ ∫

AnA

Stokes Theorem:

( )

ˆ

da d

⋅ ∇× = ⋅

∫ ∫

nAAl

222222

sincos1sectan1coshsinh1

θ+ θ = θ− θ = θ− θ =

( ) ( )

22

11cos1cos2sin1cos2sin22sincos22

θ = + θ θ = − θ θ = θ θ

1 for 123,231,3121 for 1 for 132,213,3210 for 0 otherwise

ijk ij ijk ilm jl km jm kl

ijk i jijk i j

=⎧=⎧⎪ε = − = δ = ε ε = δ δ −δ δ⎨ ⎨≠⎩⎪⎩

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

× × = ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ × = ⋅ × = ⋅ ×

ABCBACCABABCBCACAB

( ) ( ) ( )( ) ( )( )

× ⋅ × = ⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅

ABCDACBDADBC

( ) ( ) ( )

2

00

∇×∇ψ = ∇⋅ ∇× = ∇× ∇× = ∇ ∇⋅ −∇

AAAA

( ) ( )

∇⋅ ψ = ∇ψ⋅ +ψ∇⋅ ∇× ψ = ∇ψ× +ψ∇×

AAAAAA

( ) ( ) ( )

∇ ⋅ = ⋅∇ + ⋅∇ + × ∇× + × ∇×

ABABBAABBA

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

∇⋅ × = ⋅ ∇× − ⋅ ∇× ∇× × = ∇⋅ − ∇⋅ + ⋅∇ − ⋅∇

ABBAABABABBABAAB

Div, Grad, Curl and all that:Cylindrical Spherical1ˆˆˆ

s s z

∂ψ ∂ψ ∂ψ∇ψ = + +∂ ∂ϕ ∂

sz

11ˆˆˆsin

r r r

∂ψ ∂ψ ∂ψ∇ψ = + +∂ ∂θ θ ∂ϕ

r

θϕ

( )

11

zs

AAsAs s s z

ϕ

∂∂∂∇⋅ = + +∂ ∂ϕ ∂

A

( )

( )

22

111sinsinsin

r

Ar A Ar r r r

ϕθ

∂∂ ∂∇⋅ = + θ +∂ θ ∂θ θ ∂ϕ

A

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