1.Discuss and compare between deduction, reasoning and problemsolving approaches.answer:-Deduction:-
methods involve beginning with a general concept or givenrule and moving on to a more specific . Deduction approaches were themost ancient techniques.
Reasoning is the cognitive process of looking for reasons,beliefs, conclusions, actions or feelings.
They challenge you to clearlyunderstand a problem and to think through the solution.
Problem solving approaches:-
There are many approaches to problemsolving, depending on the nature of the problem and the people involvedin the problem. It includes state space approach. To understand whatexactly artificial intelligence is, we illustrate some common problems.Problems dealt with in artificial intelligence generally use a commonterm called 'state'. A state represents a status of the solution at agiven step of the problem solving procedure. The solution of a problem,thus, is a collection of the problem states. The problem solvingprocedure applies an operator to a state to get the next state. Then itapplies another operator to the resulting state to derive a new state.The process of applying an operator to a state and its subsequenttransition to the next state, thus, is continued until the goal (desired)state is derived. Such a method of solving a problem is generallyreferred to as statespace approach.
2.The Turing test has often been incorrectly interpreted as beinga test of whether or not a person could distinguish betweenresponses from a computer and responses from a person. Make10 questions through which we can differ a system and a Human.Answer all those questions according to system and a Human.
Answer:-Turing test:- Alan Turing, in a 1951 paper, proposed a test called "TheImitation Game" that might finally settle the issue of machineintelligence. The first version of the game he explained involved nocomputer intelligence whatsoever. Imagine three rooms, each connectedvia computer screen and keyboard to the others. In one room sits a man,in the second a woman, and in the third sits a person - call him or herthe "judge". The judge's job is to decide which of the two people talkingto him through the computer is the man. The man will attempt to helpthe judge, offering whatever evidence he can (the computer terminalsare used so that physical clues cannot be used) to prove his man-hood.