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Artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence

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Published by Monika Dogra

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Published by: Monika Dogra on Sep 20, 2010
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01/28/2013

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ASSIGNMENT-1CSE402: Artificial Intelligence Submitted by:-Monika DograRoll no.-R B1803 B57Reg. no.- 10801186
 
Part-A
1.Discuss and compare between deduction, reasoning and problemsolving approaches.answer:-Deduction:-
deductive
methods involve beginning with a general concept or givenrule and moving on to a more specific . Deduction approaches were themost ancient techniques.
Resoning:-
 
Reasoning is the cognitive process of looking for reasons,beliefs, conclusions, actions or feelings.
 
They challenge you to clearlyunderstand a problem and to think through the solution.
Problem solving approaches:-
 
There are many approaches to problemsolving, depending on the nature of the problem and the people involvedin the problem. It includes state space approach. To understand whatexactly artificial intelligence is, we illustrate some common problems.Problems dealt with in artificial intelligence generally use a commonterm called 'state'. A state represents a status of the solution at agiven step of the problem solving procedure. The solution of a problem,thus, is a collection of the problem states. The problem solvingprocedure applies an operator to a state to get the next state. Then itapplies another operator to the resulting state to derive a new state.The process of applying an operator to a state and its subsequenttransition to the next state, thus, is continued until the goal (desired)state is derived. Such a method of solving a problem is generallyreferred to as statespace approach.
2.The Turing test has often been incorrectly interpreted as beinga test of whether or not a person could distinguish betweenresponses from a computer and responses from a person. Make10 questions through which we can differ a system and a Human.Answer all those questions according to system and a Human.
Answer:-Turing test:- Alan Turing, in a 1951 paper, proposed a test called "TheImitation Game" that might finally settle the issue of machineintelligence. The first version of the game he explained involved nocomputer intelligence whatsoever. Imagine three rooms, each connectedvia computer screen and keyboard to the others. In one room sits a man,in the second a woman, and in the third sits a person - call him or herthe "judge". The judge's job is to decide which of the two people talkingto him through the computer is the man. The man will attempt to helpthe judge, offering whatever evidence he can (the computer terminalsare used so that physical clues cannot be used) to prove his man-hood.
 
The woman's job is to trick the judge, so she will attempt to deceivehim, and counteract her opponent's claims, in hopes that the judge willerroneously identify her as the male.
10 questions through which we can differ a system and a Human:-
Q1:- what is the length of your hair?Human:- My hairs are about 9 inches long.Computer: machine will definitely give the wrong answer because it’s apersonal question that is known only by that person. Q2:-at what time we start our conversation?Human:- human will wait for a while and will answer after a pause.Computer:- system will definitely answer quickly and correctly.Q3:-are you a male or female?Human:- will answer quickly as they know what they are.Computer:- now the problem arises here for computer as computer is amachine how can it tell whether it is a male or female.Q4:-add 1000235 and 1045478.Human:(after a pause will answer) 1045713.Computer:- will answer at once 1045713.Q5:-what is your parent’s name?Human:- human will answer this question with ease and correctly supposehe answer’s mr. rana and mrs. Rana.Computer:- this is a big problem for computer . it will give wrong answer.Q6:- what is your profession?Human:- (quickly answer’s) I am a student of b. tech.Computer:- computer don’t know about it’s profession and will answerincorrectly.Q7:- who is your best friend?Human:- (will answer this question at once) monika.Computer:-will answer this incorrectly.Q8:-what is your age?Human:- (immediately answer’s ) 19.Computer:- system is unable to answer correctly to this question.Q9:- what you did last night?Human:- will answer immediately suppose he answered , I was tired a lotso took rest.Computer:-compter would have problem in answering this question.

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