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Afon Llwyd River,Caerleon, Newport: Archaeological assessment

Afon Llwyd River,Caerleon, Newport: Archaeological assessment

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The Celtic Manor Resort has commissioned the Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust
Contracts Division to undertake an archaeological desk-based assessment of the potential
archaeological resource in the parcels of land within their ownership that border the River Afon
Llwyd.
Twenty-two sites of archaeological interests, including two Scheduled Ancient Monuments
(SAM), were identified in the assessment area. One SAM (Mm 244) is located within the
landholding.
The Celtic Manor Resort has commissioned the Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust
Contracts Division to undertake an archaeological desk-based assessment of the potential
archaeological resource in the parcels of land within their ownership that border the River Afon
Llwyd.
Twenty-two sites of archaeological interests, including two Scheduled Ancient Monuments
(SAM), were identified in the assessment area. One SAM (Mm 244) is located within the
landholding.

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Categories:Types, Research, History
Published by: The Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust Ltd on Sep 20, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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05/06/2011

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Land either side of the Afon Llwyd River between the River Usk, the Usk Road and Caerleon, Newport:archaeological assessment
 
Contents Page
Summary.........................................................................................................................2Acknowledgements.........................................................................................................2Copyright notice.............................................................................................................21. Introduction........................................................................................................3
1.1 Assessment area proposal............................................................................31.2 Specification and methodology for study....................................................31.3 Assessment criteria......................................................................................3
2. Background.........................................................................................................6
2.1 Location and topography.............................................................................62.2 Geology.......................................................................................................62.3 General archaeological background............................................................7
3. Site specific archaeology and zonation.............................................................8
3.1 Archaeological interests..............................................................................83.2 Site zoning...................................................................................................83.3 Walkover survey.......................................................................................143.4 Cartographic sources.................................................................................14
4. National and local planning constraints and policies....................................165. Summary of archaeological potential.............................................................19Bibliography.................................................................................................................20Appendix I.....................................................................................................................22
Summary of data from the Tithe maps of Caerleon and Christchurch parishesincluding tithe plan extract
Appendix II...................................................................................................................24
St.Aarons. Extract from Early Medieval ecclesiastical sites in southeast Wales
Appendix III.................................................................................................................27
Aerial photographs with coverage of the evaluation area
Appendix IV..................................................................................................................29
Gazetteer of archaeological interests
Figures Page
Figure 1:
Location of the study area (green)
...................................................................6Figure 2:
Map showing zones and known archaeological interests
..............................37Figure 3:
Archaeological potential plan
........................................................................38
Tables Page
Table 1:
Identified archaeological interests.....................................................................
6
 
Plates Page
Plate 1:
Zone A, view to the south shows the railway embankment in middledistance and the slopes on which the Roman cemetery is located. .................................9
Plate 2:
Zone B, view to the northeast shows dense tree coverage, River AfonLlwyd in foreground.......................................................................................................10
Plate 3:
Zone C, general view to the north of floodplain..............................................11
Plate 4:
Zone D, general view to the southwest across the floodplain..........................131
 
Land either side of the Afon Llwyd River between the River Usk, the Usk Road and Caerleon, Newport:archaeological assessment
 
Summary
The Celtic Manor Resort has commissioned the Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological TrustContracts Division to undertake an archaeological desk-based assessment of the potentialarchaeological resource in the parcels of land within their ownership that border the River AfonLlwyd.Twenty-two sites of archaeological interests, including two Scheduled Ancient Monuments(SAM), were identified in the assessment area. One SAM (Mm 244) is located within thelandholding.The greater part of the site, to the east of Caerleon, is located on the floodplain of the RiversUsk and Afon Llwyd. The Afon Llwyd has changed course on numerous occasions and it isunlikely that archaeological remains will be discovered on the floodplain due to the cuttingaction of both rivers. However, archaeological remains of national and regional importance arelocated on the western and northern boundaries of the landholding including a probablebathhouse scheduled as an ancient monument (SAM MM 244). The remains, of Roman date,are associated with the Roman fortress of Caerleon and include the roads, civilian settlementand burial grounds outside the fortress walls. Newport City Council as the Unitary Authorityrecognises the importance of Roman Caerleon and designated the area as an ArchaeologicallySensitive Area; part of the western boundary falls within its curtilage. The Newport UnitaryDevelopment Plan contains a number of specific policies that are applicable to the site and thefloodplain in particular; excepting proposals that will enhance tourism in Caerleon, thesepolicies generally discourage other forms of development.Whilst the landholding benefits from some previous geophysical survey and trial investigationsthis has not been on a scale to pin-point all archaeological interests. However, this assessmenthas allowed areas of high, medium and low potential to be determined and should proposals beadvanced for development in these areas then further evaluation followed, if necessary, byimplementation of appropriate mitigation measures, is likely to be required. In line with currentguidance it would be preferable to avoid or minimize development in those areas with thehighest potential.
Acknowledgements
Information to assist this project was provided by the following records holders, GGAT SMR,Cadw, CRAPW, RCAHMW, National Library of Wales, Gwent Record Office, and NewportLibrary Reference Department.The project was managed by Andrew Marvell BA MIFA and the report researched andprepared by Martin Tuck of GGAT.
Copyright notice
The copyright of this report is held by the Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust Ltd, whichhas granted an exclusive licence to Celtic Manor Resort and their agents to use and reproducematerial it contains. Ordnance Survey maps are reproduced under licence (AL 10005976),detailed mapping copyright of Celtic Manor Resort; annotations are GGAT copyright.2

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