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# 8407661 Mold Advance Course Book

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A useful course book for plastic engineers and mold designers.
A useful course book for plastic engineers and mold designers.

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11/01/2011

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PITAC

1- Temperature Control Basics
Temperature control for a mold refers to a control of receiving and releasing heat on the mold.In this connection knowledge of heat conductivity is important for consideration of heatreception and heat dissipation. Thus the basics of thermal conductivity will be reviewed asfollows.
1-1 Heat transfer
When there is a certain temperature difference in an object or between objects, heat will transfer to keep thermal equilibrium in a system. Heat will be transferred from high side to low side andthe transfer modes are classified as follows:Heat conductionConvection heat transfer (Heat delivery)Heat transfer Radiation heat transfer Above three occur in a complex manner, but one normally dominates others.
1-1-1 Heat conduction
Characteristic of heat conduction is that the conductor does not move. Thus heat transfer in asolid object is considered to be the result of genuine heat conduction. To a certain extent heatconduction occurs in gas and liquid but the conductivity there is prohibitively small incomparison with that of solid body. Transfer of heat is made from high temperature area to lowtemperature area and the transfer rate is proportional to the temperature gradient and the crosssection area of heat passage. This is called Fourier’s Heat Conduction Law and the formula isshown below (
Fig. 1-1-1.1
).Q =
11
AST
λ
.................................................................Formula (1.1.1.1)Where Q: Heat transfer rate: Heat flow (kcal/h)
Δ
T
1
: Temperature difference between 2 points (
)S: Distance between 2 points (m)A
1
: Cross-section area perpendicular to heat flow (m
2
)
λ
: Heat conductivity (kcal/m•h•
)In the case of heat transfer from resin to mold in the molding process, both heat conduction andheat convection occur simultaneously during the injection process but heat conductiondominates during cooling process under holding pressure after the injection process. Heattransfer from cavity surface to wall surface of cooling water pipe is made under genuine heatconduction because it is a heat transfer in a solid body.Incidentally, heat conductivity of S50C steel, which is often used as mold material, is about 46kcal/m•h•
, while heat conductivity of HDPE, which has rather high heat conductivity amongresins, is 0.4 kcal/m•h•
and that of GPPS, lower heat conductivity among resins, is about 0.1kcal/m•h•
. The ratio to S50C is 1:115 and 1:460 respectively (
Fig. 1-1-1.2
).

PITAC
Fig. 1-1-1.1 Image of Heat TransferFig. 1-1-1.2 Heat Conductivity of Various Materials (Ambient Temp. 20
)
Section A-ASection AreaS = DistanceHeatFlow"Solid"
TemperatureDifference

Air

Water

PureCopper

* Notice log scaling.Heat Conductivity:
λ
(kcal/m•h•
)