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Iraq and the Reconstruction Policies
20.US IRAQ WAR:
The 2003 invasion of Iraq, also called the Iraq War or "Operation Iraqi Freedom", is a war thatbeganMarch 20 2003, between the United States, United Kingdom and a coalition of their allies, againstIraq.The invasion began without the explicit authorization of theuntied nation security council, and some legalauthorities take the view that the action violated the U.N. Chater. The Bush Administration has citedSecurity Council resolutions from early 1990s as legal justification, though there is no clear position in anyof them with regard to the use of military action against Iraq.On 17 March 2003 in his Address to the Nation, U.S. President George W Bush demanded that IraqiPresident Saddam Hussein and his two sons Uday and Qusay leave Iraq giving them a 48-hour deadline .The following day, White House spokesman Ari Fleischer recinded Bush's previous statement, saying thatthe U.S. would invade Iraq whether Saddam Hussein left or notUnited States military operations were conducted under the name Operation Iraqi Freedom. UnitedKingdom military operations as Operation Telic and Australian operations as Operation FalconerAfter approximately three weeks of fighting, Iraq was occupied by coalition forces and the rule of SaddamHussein and his Ba'ath Party came to an end. Subsequently, the period known as post-invasion Iraqbegan. Approximately 260,000 United States troops, with support from 45,000 British and smaller forcesfrom other nations, collectively called the "Coalition of the Willing", entered IraqKuwait. Plans for openinga second front in the north were abandoned when Turkey officially refused the use of its territory for suchpurposes. Forces also supported Iraqi Kurdish militia troops, estimated to number upwards of 50,000.primarily through a staging area inFacing them was a large but poorly equipped military force. The regular Iraqi army was estimated at290,000–350,000 troops, with four Republican Guard divisions with 50,000–80,000 troops, and theFedayeen Saddam, a 20,000–40,000 strong militia, who used guerrilla tactics during the war. There werean estimated thirteen infantry divisions, ten mechanized and armored divisions, as well as some specialforces units. The Iraqi Air Force and Navy played a negligible role in the conflict.
Since the end of the Gulf War of 1991, Iraq's relations with the UN, the US, and the UK remained poor. Inthe absence of a Security Council consensus that Iraq had fully complied with the terms of the Persian Gulf War ceasefire, both the UN and the US enforced numerous economic sanctions against Iraq throughoutthe Clinton administration, and patrolled Iraqi airspace to enforce Iraqi no-fly zones. The United StatesCongress also passed the "Iraq Liberation Act" in October 1998, which provided $97 million for Iraqi"democratic opposition organizations" in order to "remove the sovereign regime headed by SaddamHussein and support a transition to democracy". This contrasted with the terms set out in U.N. Resolution687 all of which related to weapons and weapons programs, not to what regime was in place. Weaponsinspectors had also been used to gather intelligence on Iraq's WMD program, information that was thenused in targeting decisions during Operation Desert Fox. At the same time Tony Blair's Attorney GeneralLord Goldsmith could not guarantee that an invasion in the circumstances would not be challenged onlegal groundsThe United States Republican Party's campaign platform in the U.S. presidential election, 2000 called for"full implementation" of the Iraq Liberation Act and removal of Saddam Hussein with a focus on rebuildinga coalition, tougher sanctions, reinstating inspections, and support for the pro-democracy, opposition exilegroup, Iraqi National Congress.
Malik Rizwan YasinCSS Notes0300-9289949