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Steel at the dawn of capitalism: reformation, technology and enlightenment

Steel at the dawn of capitalism: reformation, technology and enlightenment

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Published by paul_belford
The development of cementation steelmaking in early seventeenth century England was one of the earliest concrete expressions of an ‘enlightenment’ mode of thought. This paper argues for a material connection between the products of steel furnaces and the Enlightenment: cementation steel was used to create the weapons and instruments which drove forward a scientific revolution from the late seventeenth century. However, at another level there is a more complex relationship between different ideas about how the world was structured: the very act of steelmaking was a bridge between humanism and the Enlightenment.
The development of cementation steelmaking in early seventeenth century England was one of the earliest concrete expressions of an ‘enlightenment’ mode of thought. This paper argues for a material connection between the products of steel furnaces and the Enlightenment: cementation steel was used to create the weapons and instruments which drove forward a scientific revolution from the late seventeenth century. However, at another level there is a more complex relationship between different ideas about how the world was structured: the very act of steelmaking was a bridge between humanism and the Enlightenment.

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Categories:Types, Research, History
Published by: paul_belford on Sep 21, 2010
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reserved

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12/13/2012

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 Hnqylunam` Boym``uc~ 95(5. 5668 8>‑>> 8>
Qyoo` my yho imsg lj amvnym`nqb4 uojlubmynlg,yoahgl`lc~ mgi og`nchyogbogy
Vm` Eo`jlui
 MEQYUMAY4 Yho hnqylu~ lj yho sm~q lj yhngkngc shnah ahmumayounqo yho Mco lj  Og`nchyogbogy amg eo yumaoi emak yl `myo boinozm` hbmgnqb' Yho iozo`lvbogy lj aobogymynlg qyoo`bmkngc ng omu`~ =3yh aogyu~ Ogc`mgi smq lgo lj yho omu`noqy algauoyo oxvuoqqnlgq lj mg ‘og`nchyogbogy„ blio lj yhlchy' My lgo `ozo` yhouonq m bmyounm` alggoaynlg eoysoog yho vuliayq lj qah jugmaoq mgi yho culsngc Og`nchyogbogy’aobogymynlg qyoo` smq qoi yl auomyo yho somvlgq lj yho anzn` smu,mgi vulznioi ngqyubogyq shnah iulzo jlusmui m qanogyn
 ﬍
a uozl`ynlg julb `myo ng yho=3yh aogyu~' Hlsozou, my mglyhou `ozo` yhouo nq m bluo albv`ox uo`mynlgqhnv eoysooginjjouogy niomq mely hls yho slu`i smq qyuayuoi' Yhnq vmvou sn`` muco yhmy yhoioqncg, algqyuaynlg mgi lvoumynlg lj yhoqo jugmaoq jluboi m io`neoumyo`~ umynlgm`may my yho imsg lj yho amvnym`nqy oum4 yho zou~ may lj qyoo`bmkngc smq m eunico eoysooghbmgnqb mgi yho Og`nchyogbogy'
Ngyuliaynlg
Yho Ogc`nqh Og`nchyogbogy nq qm``~ uocmuioi mqeongc algynclq snyh yho ‘`lgc =8yh aogyu~„, cmngngcblbogyb mjyou yho Uoqylumynlg mgi coyyngc j``~ ngyl nyqqyunio ng yho omu`~ =366q' Dlo` Blk~u hmq qoi yho youb‘Ngiqyunm` Og`nchyogbogy„ yl ioqauneo yho =8yh"aogyu~vulaoqq lj ‘qyi~ngc gmyum` vhoglbogm mgi uoc`munynoq,uoiangc yhob yl cogoum` vunganv`oq„ mgi yhog mvv`~ngcyhob yl yho vulaoqqoq lj bmgjmayuo mgi yumio (Blk~u566:, 53=‑1.' Hlsozou ny nq injjna`y yl ncgluo yho‘Qanogyn
a Uozl`ynlg„ shnah ngjluboi mgi vuoaoioiyho Og`nchyogbogy; shnah ng nyq yug smq vuoaoioie~ yho iozo`lvbogy lj hbmgnqy nginznim`nqb ng yho=:yh aogyu~' Ng yhnq algyoxy ny nq vouhmvq vuojoume`o ylio
go ‘Og`nchyogbogy„ gly mq m yobvlum` algqyuay snyhm amvnym` ‘O„ ey mq m vhn`lqlvhnam` lgo' Ng yhnq jlub nynq m blzobogy algaougoi snyh umynlgm`ny~, snyh bmkngcobvnunam` leqouzmynlgq mgi iozo`lvngc sm~q lj giou"qymgingc yho slu`i yhmy muo ngiovogiogy lj uoaonzoisnqilb' Qah mg oxvounogynm` lu oxvounbogym` mvvulmahsmq oxv`nany`~ qoy ly omu`~ ng yho =3yh aogyu~ e~ JumganqEmalg, shl zm`oi yho ngauomqo ng hbmg kgls`oicocmngoi ‘shog yho oxvounogao lj qozoum` b~qyounoq qhm``jm`` giou yho algqnioumynlg lj lgo bmg„q bngi„ (Emalg=:6?, anyoi ng Komugo~ =>:9, =55.' Yumangc yho yumdoaylu~lj Emalgnmg obvnunanqb emak juyhou, ny nq vlqqne`o ylmuco yhmy yho ‘og`nchyogbogy„ eocmg snyh yho uo"inq"alzou~ lj Munqylyo`nmg yhlchy ng yho Bnii`o Mcoq mgiyho oboucogao lj hbmgnqb’nyqo`j `omingc, lgo sm~ lumglyhou, yl yho Uojlubmynlg'
Muyq mgi b~qyounoq lj hnqylu~ mgi muahmol`lc~
‘Yho Blgkq m`` yhlchy ny smq qyn`` yho Bnii`o Mcoq'Ql Hogu~… yl`i Aulbso`` yl vmqq m zou~ qyulgc Mayqm~ngc yhmy yho Bnii`o Mcoq souo m`` lzou mgi yho blg"mqyounoq souo m`` yl eo inqql`zoi„ (Qo``mu mgi ^omybmg=>16, :9.'Yho glynlg yhmy yho vulaoqq lj Uojlubmynlg mgiUogmnqqmgao eulchy mely yho blioug slu`i nq glygos; ngiooi ny smq lgo lj yho alugouqylgoq lj vulcuoqq"nzo hnqylunoq julb `myo ng yho =>yh aogyu~ lgsmuiq'Qah shnccnqh gmuumynzoq qlchy yl obvhmqnqo yho unqolj nginznim`nqb my yho oxvogqo lj yho aluvlumyo eli~'Yho mucbogy smq ymkog m qymco juyhou e~ Bmx Soeoumy yho eocnggngc lj yho 56yh aogyu~, shl uocmuioi yhooboucogao lj amvnym`nqy qlanoy~ mq yho algqo}ogao lj 
ino vulyoqymgynqaho Oyhnk 
(Soeou =>69‑?.' Yho niom
 
>6 EO@JLUI4 QYOO@ MY YHO IMSG LJ AMVNYM@NQB HB 95(5. 5668
yhmy yho Uojlubmynlg (vulyoqymgy mgi umynlgm`. bmukoiyho ogi lj yho Bnii`o Mcoq (amyhl`na mgi qvouqynynlq.uobmngoi ilbngmgy gyn` so`` mjyou yho qoalgi slu`ismu (@ohbmgg mgi Ulyh =>>?.' Yho qyi~ lj yhooalglbna hnqylu~ lj Ogc`nqh ngiqyunm`nqmynlg, shnahoboucoi ng yho =>56q mgi maao`oumyoi ng yho =>?6q, ini`nyy`o yl ahm``ogco mgi bah yl qvvluy yho niom lj yho‘vulyoqymgy oyhna„' Glyme`o mblgc qah omu`~ qyinoqsmq yho sluk lj Vuljoqqlu Y Q Mqhylg mgi yho ]mkouhnqylunmg Muyhu Umnqyunak' Yhonu vouqvoaynzo smqahm``ogcoi ng yho =>86q e~ hnqylunmgq lj yho
 Mggm`oq
qahll`, glyme`~ e~ Jougmgi Eumio`, shl qlchy yloxv`luo ‘yho qyuayuoq lj ozou~im~ `njo„ (Eumio`=>8=.' Qah mvvulmahoq souo ng yug aunynanqoi jlu yhonuOulaogyunany~, mgi julb bluo uoaogy iozo`lvbogyq yhoyoub ‘omu`~ blioug„ hmq oboucoi mq m bluo snio`~ ma"aovyme`o vounli ioqaunvylu jlu hnqylunmgq (Eogy`o~ 5663,=9‑=>.' Muahmol`lcnqyq, lg yho lyhou hmgi, hmzo lg`~uoaogy`~ albo yl mcuoo yhmy yho vounli mjyou
a
=?66 nqozog sluyh~ lj qyi~’mgi muo qyn`` jmu julb ioanioimely yho sm~ ng shnah yhmy qyi~ qhl`i vulaooi'Ngyouoqyngc`~, muahmol`lc~ nq nyqo`j mg lyalbo lj yhoog`nchyogbogy vuldoay yl nbvulzo yho hbmg alg"inynlg yhulch umynlgm` leqouzmynlg lj yho slu`i' Yho
uqy a`mqqn
amynlg lj Ogc`nqh muahmol`lcnam` qnyoq mgi`mgiqamvoq smq mucme`~ Dlhg Meuo~„q (gve`nqhoi.
 Blgbogym Eunymggnam
lj yho `myo =3yh aogyu~ (Jls`oq=>85.' Yho Qlanoy~ lj Mgyn}munoq lj @lgilg smq jlgioing =363' Ng vmuy, yho unqo lj mgyn}munmgnqb ng yho =8yhaogyu~ smq mqqlanmyoi snyh yho iozo`lvbogy lj gmynlgm`mgi nbvounm` niogynynoq' O}mynlg lj yho gos`~ ‘inq"alzouoi„ volv`oq lj gluyh Mbounam snyh mganogy ‘Eunylgq„souo eongc bmio mq omu`~ mq yho =?>6q, shn`qy yhomqqlanmynlg eoysoog Ulbmg mgi Eunynqh nbvounm`nqb smqbmio bluo mgi bluo oxv`nany mq yho =8yh aogyu~ sogylg (Q`lmg 5663, =?5‑=:1; Qsooy 5669, =:5‑=83.' E~yho =816q Ahmu`oq @~o`` hmi slukoi ly yho vunganv`oq lj qyumyncumvh~ ng col`lc~, shnah mqqnqyoi Ahmu`oq Imusngng giouqymgingc yho vulaoqqoq lj gmyum` qo`oaynlg ’ ngyug qymgingc lg yho qhl`iouq lj yhmy cuomy Qsoio lj yhoOg`nchyogbogy, Amu` zlg @nggî (Cuneeng 5665.' MglyhouQamgingmznmg, Ahunqynmg Ducogqog Yhlbvqog, qoi yhoqmbo og`nchyogoi vunganv`oq lj y~vl`lc~ mgi qyumyncumvh~yl iozo`lv yho yhuoo mcoq lj qylgo, eulgto mgi nulg shnahqyn`` jlub yho emqnq lj vuohnqyluna ahulgl`lc~'Mq ng yho inqanv`ngo lj hnqylu~, yho =>yh"aogyu~jlgimynlgq lj muahmol`lc~ souo ngauomqngc`~ }oqynlgoing yho `mqy jos ioamioq lj yho 56yh aogyu~' Mjyou myyobvyqmy m ‘vulaoqqm`nqy„ muahmol`lc~, shnah ngaluvlumyoim zmunoy~ lj qanogyn
a yoahgn}oq, gol"Og`nchyogbogyumynlgm`nqy ledoaynzny~ smq `muco`~ memgilgoi ng yho‘vlqy"vulaoqqm`nqy„ mgi `myou iozo`lvbogyq lj yho =>36qmgi =>86q' Yhoqo iozo`lvbogyq muo ioqauneoi e~ ImzniAumgqylgo o`qoshouo ng yhnq zl`bo; ny nq qj 
anogy ylglyo houo ysl bmng ahmgcoq' Jnuqy`~ yhouo nq yho ngauomq"ngc uoalcgnynlg yhmy mg muahmol`lc~ lj yho vlqy"boinozm`vounli amg il ql bah bluo yhmg may mq yho ljy"}lyoi‘hmgibmniog lj hnqylu~„ (Mgiuog =>>8, =6:.' Vlqy"boinozm` mgi ngiqyunm` muahmol`lcnoq hmzo oboucoi mqj``~"
oicoi albvlgogyq lj yho eulmiou qyi~ lj c`lem`hnqylunam` muahmol`lc~' Qoalgi`~, bmg~ lucmgnqmynlgqhmzo eocg yl en`i qedoaynzny~ ngyl yho auomynlg lj yhoqnyo uoalui' My eoqy yhnq m``lsq jlu m vlqnynzo uo
oxnzo mv"vulmah yl iom`ngc snyh muahmol`lcnam` uobmngq' Yho ‘muy„lj yu~ngc yl oxyumay bomgngcj` qylunoq julb jumcbogyq lj volv`oq„ `lgc"inqamuioi ueenqh mgi memgilgoi en`i"ngcq nq makgls`oicoi' Yhq muahmol`lc~’ng nyq auuogyvlqy"Og`nchyogbogy jlub’nq oqahosngc yho mvvmuogy`~uncni elgimunoq eoysoog ledoaynzny~ mgi qedoaynzny~' Nyamg eo mucoi yhmy yho inqanv`ngo nq my yho jluojulgy lj muoyug yl yho omu`~ Og`nchyogbogy algyngb lj ‘muy„ mgi‘qanogao„' Qah iozo`lvbogyq ng muahmol`lc~ vouhmvqbmko ny yho blqy mvvulvunmyo yll` jlu yho qyi~ lj yhob~qyounlq ‘muy„ mgi ‘qanogao„ lj omu`~ qyoo`bmkngc'
Yho qanogao lj yho muy lj qyoo`bmkngc
‘Yho qanogao lj yho muy lj qyoo`bmkngc nq qyn`` ng m zou~nbvoujoay qymyo, hlsozou mizmgaoi yho muy bm~ eo' Yhozmunoynoq lj qyoo` ng albbouao muo oxaooingc`~ gboulq,ey yho amqoq lj injjouogao muo ng bmg~ amqoq gkglsg,mgi yho ngzoqyncmynlg lj yhoqo amqoq nq myyogioi snyhcuomy inj 
a`y~'„ (Voua~ =8:9, NN, 3:9.'Yhnq, julb lgo lj yho cuomy =>yh"aogyu~ boym``ucnqyq nqn``bngmyngc' Qyoo`bmkngc smq mg ‘muy„ shnah vuliaoim snio umgco lj qyoo`~ bmyounm`q, ey yho og`nchyogbogyvuldoay lj obvnunam` leqouzmynlg, amym`lcngc, mgiumynlgm` ioiaynlg hmi emuo`~ ylahoi yhnq qncgn
amgyogyouvunqo' Mq Cúumg U~iîg mucoi (gve`nqhoi. myyho Amuinjj booyngc shouo yhnq vmvou smq vuoqogyoi,qyoo` smq io
goi bluo e~ nyq algqbouq yhmg nyq vul"iaouq' Ngiooi, giouqymgingc lj yho ‘qanogao lj yho muy„ng Voua~„q ynbo smq ng bmg~ sm~q `nyy`o juyhou jlusmuiyhmg ny hmi eoog shog yho
uqy aobogymynlg qyoo` ju"gmaoq souo en`y ng Ogc`mgi qlbo 5?6 ~omuq vuoznlq`~'Yhoqo
uqy jugmaoq (ng lvoumynlg julb
a
=:=> yl
a
=:8:,mgi oxymgy gyn` =35:. souo `lamyoi ng Alm`eullkim`o,Qhulvqhnuo' Yho~ souo gileyoi`~ alm`"
uoi, algymngoibmg~ lj yho qmbo jomyuoq, mgi souo lvoumyoi ng bahyho qmbo bmggou mq `myou jugmaoq shnah sl`i hmzoeoog jmbn`nmu yl Voua~ mgi hnq algyobvlumunoq' M uovluylg yho oxamzmynlg lj yhoqo jugmaoq hmq uoaogy`~ eoogve`nqhoi ng yhnq dlugm` (Eo`jlui mgi Ulqq 5663.'
 
>= HB 95(5. 5668 EO@JLUI4 QYOO@ MY YHO IMSG LJ AMVNYM@NQB 
Iungc yho aluqo lj vuovmungc yhmy uovluy, qmbv`oq lj yho uojumaylu~ bmyounm`q qoi ng nyq algqyuaynlg souoqebnyyoi jlu qanogyn
a mgm`~qnq e~ Ogc`nqh Hounymcoqanogynqyq (Jnc =.' Yho uoq`yq lj yho mgm`~qnq’giou"ymkog qngc m qamggngc o`oayulg bnaulqalvo (QOB.snyh mg myymahoi ogouc~"inqvouqnzo X"um~ qvoayulboyou(OIQ.’niogynjnoi yog injjouogy ahobnam` o`obogyq'Mq so`` mq albvlgiq lj nulg (Jo., am`anb (Am. mgiqn`nalg (Qn., yho mgm`~qnq m`ql uozom`oi lxnioq lj bmg"cmgoqo (Bg., m`bngnb (M`. mgi ynymgnb (Yn.' Yhouoq`yq lj yhnq mgm`~qnq qhlsoi yhmy yhuoo lysmui`~qnbn`mu, ey ahobnam``~ mgi boahmgnam``~ qey`~ inj"jouogy y~voq lj qmgiqylgo souo qoi yl en`i yho jugmao'Yho qn`nam (QnL
5
. algyogy vulznioi mg nginamynlg lj yhouojumaylu~ vlyogynm` lj yho qmgiqylgo' Ngyouoqyngc`~ yhoqmgiqylgo qoi ngqnio yho jugmao hmi m `lsou qn`namalgyogy yhmg yho luingmu~ en`ingc qylgo qoi o`qoshouong yho qyuayuo, ey hmi eoyyou boahmgnam` vulvouynoq jlusnyhqymgingc algqnqyogy`~ hnchou yobvoumyuoq (Eo`jluimgi Ulqq 5663, ==?‑==8.'Omu`~ ng yho =3yh aogyu~ yho jugmao"en`iouq kgos gl"yhngc mely qn`nam, ynymgnb lu lxnioq' Ngiooi ozog yhmyblqy emqna m``l~ngc o`obogy jlu m`` jouulq boym``uc~’amuelg’smq gly niogyn
oi jlu mglyhou hgiuoi ~omuq(Qbnyh =>:9, =9>‑=?5.' Juyhoubluo, yho zou~ glynlglj ‘qanogao„ smq gly inqyngcnqhoi julb lyhou jlubqlj vhn`lqlvhnam` og}nu~ jlu mglyhou cogoumynlg, mgismq gly ozog gmboi mq qah gyn` =811 (Hl`boq 5668.'Gozouyho`oqq yho auomyluq lj yho jugmao souo me`o ylbmko mvvulvunmyo ahlnaoq eoysoog yhuoo znqm``~ qnbn`muy~voq lj ulak jlu nyq algqyuaynlg' Lgo lj yhoqo sl`ihmzo bo`yoi, lgo sl`i hmzo aube`oi mvmuy, mgi lg`~lgo albengoi qj 
anogy uojumaylu~ }m`nynoq snyh mi"o}myo boahmgnam` qyuogcyh'Ql smq yho ahlnao lj qylgo jlu yho Alm`eullkim`o ju"gmao mg ‘og`nchyogoi„ ahlnao emqoi lg obvnunam` imymal``oaynlg mgi mgm`~qnq< Gly ng yho qogqo lj ny eongc mg‘Og`nchyogoi„ ahlnao jl``lsngc, qm~, Uogo Ioqamuyoq„Golv`mylgnqy hnoumuah~ lj gnzouqm` jlubq' Hlsozou,e~ qngc yho qbm`` ‘o„, ny nq vlqqne`o yl vouaonzo yhnqmq mg og`nchyogoi ahlnao emqoi lg ogynuo`~ umynlgm`leqouzmynlgq bmio lzou bmg~ cogoumynlgq e~ volv`ojmbn`nmu snyh yho ums bmyounm`q mgi yho vulaoqqoq shnahbmio qo lj yhob'M qnbn`mu ngynynzo giouqymgingc, lj hls boym`q eohmzogiou injjouogy alginynlgq, nq m so``"kglsg mqvoay lj yuminynlgm` e`makqbnyhngc' Ny hmq eoog uocmuioi mq lgolj yho jmayluq shnah ho`i emak yho milvynlg lj bngoum`jo`q ng yho jlucngc mgi uo
gngc vulaoqqoq `myo ng yho=8yh aogyu~ (Hm~bmg 5661.' Qah algqouzmynqb nqgiouqymgime`o ng mg ngiqyu~ shouo qalvo jlu oxvoun"bogymynlg nq `nbnyoi e~ oalglbna algqyumngyq' Ozogngyouuvyngc yho ahmng lj qvv`~ yl yu~ m q`nchy`~ injjouogyahmuco ng yho jugmao unqkoi inqmqyou; yl yu~ mgi ngyuliaogos jo`q lu uojumaylu~ bmyounm`q sl`i hmzo eoog ozogbluo unqk~' Yuminynlgm` hnqylunoq lj yho nulg ngiqyu~ hmzoyhouojluo mucoi yhmy ngglzmynlg ng jouulq boym``uc~smq lg`~ vlqqne`o lgao yho Og`nchyogbogy vulcumbbolj qanogyn
a umynlgm`nqb smq so`` giou sm~ (Qaheouy=>?3; Blyy =>81.' Qah mgm`~qnq nq ng koovngc snyh so``"oqyme`nqhoi niomq ng oalglbna hnqylu~ lj yho oqqogynm``~qymyna gmyuo lj vuo"ngiqyunm` qlanoy~' Yhq, ioqvnyolaamqnlgm` jnyq mgi qymuyq lj ngglzmynlg’shmy Dmak
Jncuo =4 Vlqy"og`nchyogbogy muahmolboym``uc~ ng ma"ynlg' Dqyngo Em~`o~ mgi  Imzni Igcsluyh inqaqq"ngc qmbv`oq lj uojumaylu~bmyounm` iungc m qnyo znqny yl yho oxamzmynlgq lj yhoAlm`eullkim`o qyoo` ju"gmaoq ng Dgo 566?' (Vm` Eo`jlui.'

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