against OBE . . ." (Free World Research Special Report, April 1993, "Outcome-BasedEducation: Re-defining the School, by Wayne Wolf).High achievers, especially, suffer because the outcomes are so low that the slowest learners canFINALLY reach them, no mater how long it takes ("Mastery Learning Reconsidered," by RobertSlavin, January 1987, Center for Research on Elementary & Middle Schools, Johns HopkinsUniversity, Baltimore, MD).
OBE is not an academic process
. It focuses on complex human behaviors (Dr. Barbara Kapinus, George Lt. Governor's Conference on OBE, May 13, 1993)
5. Explain "higher order thinking skills" (HOTS).
HOTS uses values clarification to modify behavior and change values by role playing and other strategies which require students to demonstrate their behavior in ambiguous situations. Atraditional response based on absolutes is not acceptable. Students must adopt new behavior.Under OBE, higher order thinking skills are used to restructure, reorder or discard all previousknowledge and arrive at new solutions (Briefing Notebook for Georgia High School GraduationTest, June 7, 1993, Document A, p. 1, Dec. 16-17, 1991 Background Paper 2), GeorgiaDepartment of Education, Research, Evaluation & Assessment Division).If students discard all previous knowledge, what foundation will they use to reach that newsolution to problems? Most likely, they'll use the new information they have been facilitated toaccept in class from teachers and peers.
Result: Situation ethics, new values, no right or wrong.
6. Why is one-third of the proposed graduation test dedicated to HOTS?
That was decided by the State Department of Education and the contractor for the test,Measurement Inc., in spite of the fact that most teachers surveyed prefer to teach academiccontent rather than behavior modification (Georgia High School Graduation Test BackgroundPaper #5, Teacher Survey, Dec. 16-17, 1991, Document A).The law governing the new graduation test was passed in 1991 (S.B. 328), was piloted in theSpring of 1993, and will be implemented in 1994 (Georgia Superintendent of Schools, HouseCurriculum Subcommittee Meeting, June 7, 1993). Eleventh graders will take the test, but anywho fail may take it two or three more times. Even A students can't graduate until they pass it.S.B. 328 requires an emphasis on HOTS (values clarification to change behavior, beliefs,attitudes and values.)
7. What is the goal of HOTS and why is it critical to graduation?
HOTS can be used to change the attitudes, behaviors, beliefs and values of students.
Absolutevalues are not considered "politically correct."
The graduation test will determine whether thestudent has conformed to the outcomes which measure his behavior. If he has not conformed, hewill take the test until he does. I believe the test, itself, is the remediation tool since repeating itwill consistently redirect thought patterns until the answers come out "right" on the assessment.