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Consensual Sex Injury Overview

Consensual Sex Injury Overview

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Published by: JMarkowitz on Sep 22, 2010
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J. Markowitz: Consensual Sex Injury Research Grid1
 Article
y
 S
tudy
Ov
er
v
iew
F
indings
 
Use of toluidine blue for documentation of traumatic intercourse.
(
1982)Lauber AA, Souma ML.Obstet Gynecol.Nov;60
(5
):644-8.
 
Forty four women were examinedusing toluidine blue dye, half of whom had had consensual sexualintercourse.Only 1 of the 22 consensual sex patients had positive findingswith toluidine blue dye, versus 40% of patients seen within48 hours of sexual assault.
Investigation of microtrauma after sexual intercourse.
 
(
1984)Norvell MK, Benrubi GI,Thompson RJ. J ReprodMed. Apr;29
(
4):269-71.The study looked at whether acolposcope would help identifyfindings consistent with recent sexual intercourse. Eighteenparticipants were examined after72 hours of abstinence, and thenagain 6 hours after sexualintercourse.Sixty one percent of patients had identifiable traumafollowing consensual sexual intercourse, compared to 11%following abstinence.
Patterns of genital injury in female sexual assault victims.
 
(
1997)Slaughter L, Brown CR,Crowley S, Peck R.Am J Obstet Gynecol.Mar;176
(3
):609-16.Physical examinations wereperformed on
3
11 rape victimsseen by San Luis Obispo County'sSuspected Abuse Response Teambetween 198
5
and 199
3
andcontemporaneously on 7
5
womenafter consensual sexualintercourseAmong 21
3
 
(
68%) victims with genital trauma, 162
(
76%)had approximately
3
mean sites of injury. Eight 
(
11%)consenting women had just single-site trauma. Two hundred
(
94%) victims had trauma at one or more of four locations:posterior fourchette, labia minora, hymen, fossa navicularis.Trauma varied by site: tears on the posterior fourchette andfossa, abrasions on the labia, and bruising on the hymen.
(
CAVEAT: methodology does not hold up under scrutiny inthis study and has largely been discredited) 
Variations in vaginal epithelial surfaceappearance determined by 
107 women were examined 2-
3
 times over a 4-6 month periodusing a colposcopic. Exams wereIn the
3
14 exams completed, the most common finding waspetechiae. Actual lesions, defined primarily as tears, bruisesor abrasions, occurred in only
3
.
5
% of inspections, and were
y
Note: all abstracts can be found at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed 
 
J. Markowitz: Consensual Sex Injury Research Grid2
colposcopic inspection inhealthy, sexually activewomen.
 
(
1999)Fraser IS, Lähteenmäki P,Elomaa K, Lacarra M,Mishell DR Jr, Alvarez F,Brache V, Weisberg E,Hickey M, Vallentine P,Nash HA. Hum Reprod.Aug;14
(
8):1974-8.meant to identify changes to thevaginal and cervical appearancecaused by sexual intercourse,tampon use, contraception, andsmoking or environmental factors.associated with sexual intercourse within the previous 24hours or with tampon use.
 Anogenital injuries inadolescents after consensual sexual intercourse.
 
(
200
3
)Jones JS, Rossman L,Hartman M, AlexanderCC. Acad Emerg Med.Dec;10
(
12):1
3
78-8
3
.
5
1 adolescent girls, 1
3
-17,examined following reportedconsensual sex
(
49% for the 1
st 
 time); compared to control groupof sexual assault patientsComparison of documented anogenital trauma: 7
3
% of participants after consensual sex vs. 8
5
% of sexual assault patients; Consensual sex patients had injuries commonlyinvolving hymen, fossa navicularis, and posterior fourchette.Nonconsensual sex patients had greater number of injuriesinvolving the fossa navicularis, labia minora, and hymen. Themost common type of injury in both groups was lacerations.Sexual assault patients had more anogenital abrasions,bruising, and edema
Genital findings of womenafter consensual and nonconsensual intercourse.
(
2006)Anderson S, McClain N,Riviello RJ. J ForensicNurs. Summer;2
(
2):
5
9-6
5
.102 women examined afterconsensual sex vs.
5
6 followingreported sexual assault No statistical difference was noted in the presence of injurybetween the two groups. The subjects in the nonconsensualgroup were 8 times more likely to have two or more injuriesas the consensual group. There was a statistically significant difference in the injuries to the labia minora: only those in thenonconsensual group had injuries identified in this location.
Changes in genital injury 
Women
(
n =
35
) ages 18-
3
9 had At Time 1
(
within 48 h of consensual intercourse) there was a
 
J. Markowitz: Consensual Sex Injury Research Grid
3
 
 patterns over time inwomen after consensual intercourse.
 
(
2008)Anderson SL, Parker BJ,Bourguignon CM. JForensic Leg Med.Jul;1
5(5
):
3
06-11.two evidentiary type pelvicexaminations to document injuriesafter consensual intercourse. 49%reported digital penetration of thevagina in addition to penilepenetration of the vaginalarger total surface area of injury, as well as a larger surfacearea of injury to the posterior fourchette; a larger surface areaof abrasions; and a larger surface area of redness comparedto Time 2
(
24 h after Time 1).
Forensic sexual assault examination and genital injury: is skin color asource of health disparity?  
(
2008) Sommers, MS,Zink, TM, Fargo, JD, Baker,RB, Buschur, C, Shambry-Ebron, DZ, Fisher, BS. AmJ Emerg Med, 26, 8
5
7-866.
(
AVAILABLE FREEFULL-TEXT)
Health disparities in the forensic sexual assault examination related toskin color.
 
(
2009)Sommers MS, Fargo JD,Baker RB, Fisher BS,Buschur C, Zink TM. JForensic Nurs.
5(
4):191-200.This study compared anogenitalinjury prevalence and frequencyin women of different racesfollowing consensual sexualintercourse. One hundred twentywomen
(
6
3
Black,
5
7 White)underwent a forensic sexualassault examination followingconsensual sexual intercourse.Visual inspection, colposcopytechnique with digital imaging,and toluidine blue applicationwere used to document thenumber, type, and location of anogenital injuries.Fifty five percent of the participants had at least oneanogenital injury following consensual intercourse. Thepercentages were significantly different between White
(
68%) participants and Black 
(
4
3
%) participants, but inlooking at location, only for the external genitalia
(
White =
5
6%, Black = 24), not for the internal genitalia
(
White = 28%,Black = 19%) or anus
(
White = 9%, Black = 10). Dark skincolor rather than race was a strong predictor for decreasedinjury prevalence.

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