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Know About Important Breeds of Cattle and Buffalos in India

Know About Important Breeds of Cattle and Buffalos in India

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Published by Dr. MANOJ SHARMA

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Published by: Dr. MANOJ SHARMA on Sep 22, 2010
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Know about important breeds of dairy cattle andbuffaloes in India
Manoj Sharma, Gurdeep Singh and Baljit Singh
 Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kapurthala 144620 (Punjab).
efinition of Breed:
A breed is a group of animals related similar characters like general appearance, size,features and configuration etc. A group of individual which have certain common characteristicsthat distinguish them from other groups of individuals is known as Species.
ypes of Breeds:
Domestic cattle belong to the family Bovidae, sub-family Bovinae and can be classifiedinto
 Bos indicus
. They have 30 pairs of chromosomes, interbreed and aredistributed throughout the tropics. The domestication of 
cattle took place some 8000to 9000 years ago and Homitic longhorn and shorthorn types are believed to be their ancestors.The origin of 
breeds (humped cattle) was in western Asia (Payne 1970). Bothhumped and hump less cattle were introduced to Africa from western Asia and into America andAustralia from Europe by the immigrants.The European cattle
were introduced in the tropics to be raised as pure-bredsand crossbred with indigenous breeds. As a result of crossing of native cattle with Europeandairy breeds, large numbers of crossbreeds have been produced in various tropical countries,which are being used in selection programs. Zebu
cattle were introduced into UnitedStates in the nineteenth century for crossbreeding with European breeds. Breeds resulting fromcrosses are used in the southern regions of north America and tropical south America. Most of the cattle breeds in the tropics evolved, through natural selection, for adaptability and survival tolocal environments. Often, breeds resemble each other with slight morphological differences, but because of constant inbreeding in one locality, independent breeds have evolved. In general, the
cattle from drier regions are well built and those from heavy rainfall areas, coastal and hillyregions are of smaller build.
lassification of cattle breeds :
Most indigenous cattle breeds in the tropics are multipurpose (milk, meat, draught) andthat only a few breeds have good milk potential. Physical and economic parameters for some of the important indigenous dairy breeds and new crossbred types developed in the tropics arediscussed.Indian cattle breeds of cattle are classified in to three types as under :  a) Milch breeds b) Dual Purpose breedsc) Draught breeds
Milch Breeds:
The cows of these breeds are high milk yielders and the male animals are slow or poor worker. The examples of Indian milch breeds are Sahiwal, Red Sindhi, Gir and Deoni The milk  production of milk breeds is on the average more than 1600 kg. per lactation.
ual Purpose Breeds :
The cows in these breeds are average milk yielder and male animals are very useful for work. Their milk production per lactation is 500 kg to 150 kg. The example of this group areOngole, Hariana, Kankrej, Tharparker, Krishna valley, Rathi and Goalo Mewathi.
raught Breeds
The male animals are good for work and cows are poor milk yielders and their milk yieldon an average is less than 500 kg per lactation. They are usually white in colour.

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