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Desizing

Desizing

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Published by syed asim najam
Desizing:
Desizing is done in order to remove the size from the warp yarns of the woven fabrics. Warp yarns are coated with sizing agents prior to weaving in order to reduce their frictional properties, decrease yarn breakages on the loom and improve weaving productivity by increasing weft insertion speeds. The sizing material present on the warp yarns can act as a resist towards dyes and chemicals in textile wet processing. It must, therefore, be removed before any subsequent wet processing of
Desizing:
Desizing is done in order to remove the size from the warp yarns of the woven fabrics. Warp yarns are coated with sizing agents prior to weaving in order to reduce their frictional properties, decrease yarn breakages on the loom and improve weaving productivity by increasing weft insertion speeds. The sizing material present on the warp yarns can act as a resist towards dyes and chemicals in textile wet processing. It must, therefore, be removed before any subsequent wet processing of

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Published by: syed asim najam on Sep 22, 2010
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11/06/2012

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Desizing:
Desizing is done in order to remove the size from the warp yarns of the woven fabrics.Warp yarns are coated with sizing agents prior to weaving in order to reduce their frictional properties, decrease yarn breakages on the loom and improve weavingproductivity by increasing weft insertion speeds. The sizing material present on the warpyarns can act as a resist towards dyes and chemicals in textile wet processing. It must,therefore, be removed before any subsequent wet processing of the fabric. The factors,on which the efficiency of size removal depends, are as follows:
Type and amount of size applied
Viscosity of the size in solution
Ease of dissolution of the size film on the yarn
Nature and the amount of the plasticizers
Fabric construction
Method of desizing, and
Method of washing-off Different methods of desizing are:
Enzymatic desizing
Oxidative desizing
Acid steeping
Rot steeping
Desizing with hot caustic soda treatment, and
Hot washing with detergentsThe most commonly used methods for cotton are enzymatic desizing and oxidativedesizing. Acid steeping is a risky process and may result in the degradation of cottoncellulose while rot steeping, hot caustic soda treatment and hot washing with detergentsare less efficient for the removal of the starch sizes.
Enzymatic desizing
consists of three main steps: application of the enzyme, digestionof the starch and removal of the digestion products. The common components of anenzymatic desizing bath are as follows:
Amylase enzyme
pH stabilizer 
Chelating agent
Salt
Surfactant, and
Optical brightener The enzymes are only active within a specific range of pH, which must be maintained bya suitable pH stabiliser. Chelating agents used to sequester calcium or combine heavymetals may be injurious to the enzymes and must be tested before use. Certain saltsmay be used to enhance the temperature stability of enzymes. Surfactants may be usedto improve the wettability of the fabric and to improve the size removal. Generally, non-ionic surfactants are suitable but it is always recommended to test the compatibility of surfactants before use.
 
Some brighteners may also be incorporated in the desizing bath which may be carriedthrough the end of the pre-treatment, resulting in improved brightness but again, their compatibility must be ascertained before use.Enzymatic desizing offers the following advantages:
No damage to the fibre
No usage of aggressive chemicals
Wide variety of application processes, and
High biodegradabilitySome disadvantages of enzymatic desizing include lower additional cleaning effecttowards other impurities, no effect on certain starches (e.g. tapioca starch) and possibleloss of effectiveness through enzyme poisons.
Oxidative desizing
can be affected by hydrogen peroxide, chlorites, hypochlorites,bromites, perborates or persulphates. Two important oxidative desizing processes are:the cold pad-batch process based on hydrogen peroxide with or without the addition of persulphate; and the oxidative pad-steam alkaline cracking process with hydrogenperoxide or persulphate. The advantages offered by oxidative desizing are:
Supplementary cleaning effect
Effectiveness for tapioca starches
No loss in effectiveness due to enzyme poisons.Some disadvantages of oxidative desizing include possibility of fibre attack, use of aggressive chemicals and less variety of application methods.After desizing, the fabric is systematically analyzed to determine the uniformity andthoroughness of the treatment. It is first weighed to determine the percent size removed.The results are compared with a sample known to have been desized well in the lab. If the size is not adequately removed then either the treatment or washing have not beenthorough. Iodine spot tests are then conducted on the fabric. The fabric is not spottedrandomly but from side-centre-side at different points along the length of the fabric. Theresults of this evaluation give some idea of the causes of any inadequate treatment.Some of the most common problems in enzymatic desizing are given below:
Acid
Cold solutions of dilute sulphuric or hydrochloric acids are used to hydrolyze the starch,however, this has the disadvantage of also affecting the cellulose fiber in cotton fabrics.
Removal of water-soluble sizes
Fabrics containing water soluble sizes can be desized by washing using hotwater, perhaps containing wetting agents and a mild alkali. The water replacesthe size on the outer surface of the fiber, and absorbs within the fiber to removeany size residue.

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