Some brighteners may also be incorporated in the desizing bath which may be carriedthrough the end of the pre-treatment, resulting in improved brightness but again, their compatibility must be ascertained before use.Enzymatic desizing offers the following advantages:
No damage to the fibre
No usage of aggressive chemicals
Wide variety of application processes, and
High biodegradabilitySome disadvantages of enzymatic desizing include lower additional cleaning effecttowards other impurities, no effect on certain starches (e.g. tapioca starch) and possibleloss of effectiveness through enzyme poisons.
can be affected by hydrogen peroxide, chlorites, hypochlorites,bromites, perborates or persulphates. Two important oxidative desizing processes are:the cold pad-batch process based on hydrogen peroxide with or without the addition of persulphate; and the oxidative pad-steam alkaline cracking process with hydrogenperoxide or persulphate. The advantages offered by oxidative desizing are:
Supplementary cleaning effect
Effectiveness for tapioca starches
No loss in effectiveness due to enzyme poisons.Some disadvantages of oxidative desizing include possibility of fibre attack, use of aggressive chemicals and less variety of application methods.After desizing, the fabric is systematically analyzed to determine the uniformity andthoroughness of the treatment. It is first weighed to determine the percent size removed.The results are compared with a sample known to have been desized well in the lab. If the size is not adequately removed then either the treatment or washing have not beenthorough. Iodine spot tests are then conducted on the fabric. The fabric is not spottedrandomly but from side-centre-side at different points along the length of the fabric. Theresults of this evaluation give some idea of the causes of any inadequate treatment.Some of the most common problems in enzymatic desizing are given below:
Cold solutions of dilute sulphuric or hydrochloric acids are used to hydrolyze the starch,however, this has the disadvantage of also affecting the cellulose fiber in cotton fabrics.
Removal of water-soluble sizes
Fabrics containing water soluble sizes can be desized by washing using hotwater, perhaps containing wetting agents and a mild alkali. The water replacesthe size on the outer surface of the fiber, and absorbs within the fiber to removeany size residue.