Welcome to Scribd. Sign in or start your free trial to enjoy unlimited e-books, audiobooks & documents.Find out more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
3Activity
P. 1
Black Country iron puddling and wrought iron manufacture

Black Country iron puddling and wrought iron manufacture

Ratings: (0)|Views: 330|Likes:
Published by paul_belford
This paper radically alters our understanding of 19th century ironmaking. A workers' pocket book reveals that the differentiation between different qualities of iron was made as part of the puddling process, not during forging and rolling. The paper examines the evidence for operations at Noah Hingley and Sons’ ironworks at Netherton, near Dudley during the years 1891-1893.
This paper radically alters our understanding of 19th century ironmaking. A workers' pocket book reveals that the differentiation between different qualities of iron was made as part of the puddling process, not during forging and rolling. The paper examines the evidence for operations at Noah Hingley and Sons’ ironworks at Netherton, near Dudley during the years 1891-1893.

More info:

Categories:Types, Research, History
Published by: paul_belford on Sep 22, 2010
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reserved

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

01/16/2015

pdf

 
 Fewxo|egin Mkxinn{|`u 76&9% <228 80‗;580 
Kvx|i Wrkgein Lkwx Lkwx4 Lniga Go{jx|u e|ojr{hhnej` ijh p|o{`fx e|oj mij{cigx{|k ejxfk jejkxkkjxf gkjx{|u
Ri{n Lknco|h
 ILWX\IGX4 Xfew rirk| kvimejkw i {jey{k hog{mkjx. xfk rogakx looa oc i po|ak|ix Joif Fej`nku ijh Wojw― e|ojpo|aw ix Jkxfk|xoj. jki| H{hnku* Xfew looa &ej i r|esixk gonnkgxeoj% |kgo|hw xfk ej`|khekjxw co| xfk hecck|kjx xurkw oc r{hhnkh e|oj r|oh{gkh lu xfk ce|m h{|ej` xfk uki|w 9659‗9657* Fej`nkuw pk|k cimo{w co| xfke|gfiejw ijh ijgfo|w. ijh r|ehkh xfkmwknskw oj xfk w{rk|eo| xkjwenk wx|kj`xf ijh ijxe-go||oweoj r|ork|xekw oc xfke| p|o{`fx-e|oj gfiejw ijh gilnkw* Xfk joxklooa miakw ex gnki| xfix hecck|kjxeixeoj lkxpkkj ‖lkwx―. ‖lkwx lkwx― ijh oxfk| `|ihkw xooa rnigk ix xfk r{hhnej` wxi`k |ixfk| xfij h{|ej` w{lwky{kjx co|`ej`1 miju oc xfk mevx{|kwhkwg|elkh gij lk iwwogeixkh pexf hecck|kjx `|ihkw ihsk|xewkh lu Fej`nkuw ix xfk xemk*
Ejx|oh{gxeoj
Lkjdimej Pkwxpooh &Ce` 9% piw lo|j ej 9632. xfk wojoc C|ijgew ijh Mi|u Pkwxpooh oc 50 Jkp Wx|kkx.Jkxfk|xoj* C|ijgew Pkwxpooh po|akh iw i wfej`nk| ejojk oc xfk nogin co|`kw* Xfk Pkwxpooh cimenu pk|ko|e`ejinnu c|om L|ek|nku Fenn. ijh C|ijgew― `|ijhcixfk|Xfomiw fih inwo lkkj i lnigawmexf* Xfk x|ihexeojriwwkh xo uo{j` Lkjdimej. pfo piw irr|kjxegkh xo xfkJkxfk|xoj p|o{`fx e|ojmiak|w Joif Fej`nku ijh Wojw*Fk piw ij igxesk mkmlk| oc xfk Jkxfk|xoj E|ojpo|awWogein Gn{l c|om 966< xo 96681 icxk| xfix fk doejkh xfkCo|kwxk|w Wogekxu. ijh lkgimk ejsonskh pexf xfkkmk|`ej` x|ihk {jeoj moskmkjx* Fk xi{`fx femwknc xo|kih ijh p|exk lu goruej` jkpwrirk| i|xegnkw ijh oxfk|exkmw oc krfkmk|i* Ej 966; fk mi||ekh Fi||ekx Noigf.ijh wfo|xnu icxk|pi|hw xfku wkx {r fo{wk ej Wx* Ijh|kpwWx|kkx. Jkxfk|xoj* Lu 9659 Lkjdimej Pkwxpooh fihlkkj `eskj |kwrojwelenexu co| w{rk|sewej` xfk r{hhnej`r|ogkww*Pexf few wknc-xi{`fx p|exej` waennw fk |kgo|hkh xfkhecck|kjx mevx{|kw fk {wkh. ej i jkp joxklooa fkr|olilnu lo{`fx co| xfix r{|rowk* Co| pfixksk| |kiwoj.fk hewgojxej{kh |kgo|hej` xfew po|a ej 9657 ‗ rk|firwfk moskh oj xo i mo|k wkjeo| rowexeoj1 rk|firw fk fih
Ce`{|k 94 Lkjdimej Pkwxpooh* I rfoxo`|irf xiakj ej few nixk| uki|w. r|olilnu
g
9598*
 
86 LKNCO\H4LNIGA GO[JX\U E\OJFM 76&9% <228
hksknorkh kjo{`f ajopnkh`k xo hewrkjwk pexf fewp|exxkj iggo{jx* Ej 9529 Lkjdimej Pkwxpooh l{enx ijkp fo{wk oj Lirxewx Kjh \oih. ijh fk ijh Fi||ekxneskh xfk|k co| xfk |kwx oc xfke| neskw* Lkjdimej hekh ej958<. icxk| i neckxemk oc po|a ix Fej`nkuw1 po|a sin{khlu xfk ce|m. co| xfku rieh i rkjweoj xo fem ijh few peckej xfke| uki|w oc |kxe|kmkjx* Few joxkw oj r{hhnej`mevx{|kw c|om 9659‗9657 womkfop w{|seskh. ijh pk|kriwwkh hopj xf|o{`f xfk cimenu* Xfew rirk| ew liwkh ojxfowk iggo{jxw*
Joif Fej`nku ijh Wojw
Xfk ce|m oc Joif Fej`nku ijh Wojw piw kwxilnewfkh ixJkxfk|xoj ej 9676* Jkxfk|xoj piw ihmejewx|ixesknu ihkxigfkh ri|x oc Po|gkwxk|wfe|k pexfej Wo{xfWxicco|hwfe|k* @kono`eginnu. mkxinn{|`eginnu ijh g{nx-{|innu ex lknoj`w ej xfk ‖Lniga Go{jx|u―. pfegf fiw inoj` x|ihexeoj oc e|ojmiaej`. wrkgeceginnu p|o{`fx e|oj.gfiejw ijh gilnkw* Joif Fej`nku femwknc fih r|kseo{wnupo|akh co| few cixfk| iw i do{|jkumij e|ojpo|ak|&Minnej 9550. 9/9%* Xfk l{wejkww `|kp |irehnu. ijh lu9688 kmrnoukh 7.222 mkj &@ohhkj 9560. <8‗72%* Exwmiej r|oh{gx piw ‖Jkxfk|xoj― p|o{`fx e|oj. i xk|mpfegf ej nixk| uki|w piw ocxkj irrnekh `kjk|eginnu xop|o{`fx e|oj c|om xfk Lniga Go{jx|u. m{gf xo xfk ce|m―wijjouijgk &Ce` <% &Minnej 9550. 3/5%* Connopej` xfkhksknormkjx oc xfk Lkwwkmk| r|ogkww ej xfk 9632w.menh wxkkn piw ejg|kiwej`nu wkkj ej irrnegixeojw pfegffih co|mk|nu {wkh p|o{`fx e|oj1 fopksk| Fej`nkuwrk|wewxkh pexf xfk mij{cigx{|k oc p|o{`fx e|oj gfiejwijh gilnkw {jxen pknn ejxo xfk xpkjxekxf gkjx{|u*Ejhkkh. xfk Fej`nku gojgk|j fiw lkkj hkwg|elkh iw ‖ijejh{wx|ein ijigf|ojewm fi|jkwwkh xo i ri|ihov―‘co|exw hkxk|mejixeoj xo gojxej{k xfk mij{cigx{|k oc fe`fy{inexu p|o{`fx e|oj ix i xemk pfkj menh wxkkn piw ejxfk iwgkjhijgu. ukx miji`ej` xo cejh. kvrnoex ijh kvrijhi jegfk mi|akx co| p|o{`fx e|oj &Minnej 9550.9/0%*Lu xfk xemk Joif Fej`nku fih riwwkh xfk po|aw oj xofew uo{j`kwx woj Lkjdimej ej 9600. xfk |onk oc p|o{`fxe|oj piw lkej` wk|eo{wnu y{kwxeojkh* Miju |esin r|oh-{gk|w pkjx o{x oc l{wejkww ej xfk niwx y{i|xk| oc xfkjejkxkkjxf gkjx{|u &Minnej 9550. 3/6‗5%* Fej`nkuw―mi|akxej` kmrfiwetkh xpo miej roejxw* Xfk ce|wx oc xfkwk piw xfke| gojx|on osk| inn iwrkgxw oc r|oh{gxeoj.c|om ‖xfk o|kw ijh c{kn xfix `o ejxo xfk lniwx c{|jigkw xo xfkcejewfkh li|w nkisej` xfk po|aw―* Xfk wkgojh piw xfkkvrk|xewk oc xfke| po|aco|gk. pfo rowwkwwkh xfix ‖ejfk|exkhwaenn pexfo{x pfegf xfk rk|ckgxeoj oc g|icxwmijwfer gijjoxlk ixxiejkh― &Fej`nku ijh Woj 9592. 92%*Ex piw gk|xiejnu x|{k xfix Fej`nkuw piw i gniwwegsk|xeginnu ejxk`|ixkh l{wejkww* Xfke| Onh Fenn mejkr|oh{gkh Wxicco|hwfe|k xfega-goin o| ‖xkj-ui|h goin―pfegf gojxiejkh i|o{jh 2*;6+ w{nrf{|1 pfkj goakh xfkisk|i`k w{nrf{| gojxkjx piw ojnu 2*;9+ &Rk|gu 9639.92<‗71 Rk|gu 9638. ;83%* Ce|kgniu piw inwo kvx|igxkhc|om xfk Onh Fenn mejk* Gojxkmro|i|u ijinuwew oc gomri|ilnk ce|kgniu c|om L|ek|nku Fenn w{``kwxw wenegiijh in{meji gojxkjxw oc i|o{jh ;2+ ijh 72+|kwrkgxesknu &Rk|gu 9639. <98%* E|ojwxojk c|om xfk wimkwo{|gk piw sk|u nop ej rfowrfo|{w. ijh gojxiejkhlkxpkkj 70+ ijh 89+ e|oj &Rk|gu 9638. <9<‗7%*H{|ej` xfk 9602w xfk ce|m igy{e|kh xfk H{hnku Poohgoin ijh e|ojwxojk mejk ix Jkxfk|xoj* Ej xfk 9652w xfkOnh Fenn ijh H{hnku Pooh mejkw kmrnoukh i|o{jh <;2po|ak|w lkxpkkj xfkm. {jhk| xfk miji`kmkjx oc Penneim Hisekw &Wgoxx 9653%* Xfk Onh Fenn ijh H{hnkuPooh rexw pk|k w{rrnkmkjxkh ej 9659. pfkj LkjdimejFej`nku r{|gfiwkh xfk Goomlw Fenn kwxixk c|om Wim{knPkwxoj. pexf |e`fxw xo kvx|igx mejk|inw*Ej xfk ki|nu 9652w. pfkj Lkjdimej Pkwxpooh gomrenkhfew |kgo|h oc r{hhnej` mevx{|kw. xfk ce|m fih xpo lniwxc{|jigkw ix Onh Fenn pfegf r|oh{gkh nop rfowrfo|{w re`&Xilnk 3%* Pkwxpooh―w looa wfopw xfix p|o{`fx e|ojr|oh{gxeoj inwo {wkh re` c|om Go|j`|kiskw* Xfk JkpL|exewf E|oj Gomriju fih wev c{|jigkw fk|k ej 9652.r|oh{gej` re` pexf xfk ‖JL NEOJ― ijh ‖JLEGGO\J@\KISKW― l|ijhw &\unijh 9652. <62%* Fej`nkuwirrki| xo fisk xiakj osk| xfew po|aw lu 9653. co| xfkJkp L|exewf E|oj Gomriju ew jo noj`k| newxkh ej\unijh―w
 He|kgxo|u
ijh xfk Go|j`|kiskw l|ijhwirrki| {jhk| xfk kjx|u co| Fej`nkuw &\unijh 9653.950%* Lu xfk ki|nu uki|w oc xfk <2xf gkjx{|u Fej`nkuwwxixkh xfix ‖xfk re` e|oj pfegf co|mw xfk liwew oc xfkmevx{|kw‣ew xfk pknn-ajopj „JL NEOJ” l|ijh―.w{``kwxej` xfix xfk Onh Fenn c{|jigkw pk|k jo noj`k| ej{wk &Fej`nku ijh Woj 9592. 92%*
Ce`{|k <4 Ihsk|xewkmkjx oc 9657. c|om \unijh―w
He|kgxo|u
.inxfo{`f xfk kj`|isej` oc xfk po|aw miu fisk lkkj mihk womk uki|w ki|nek| &go{|xkwu E|ojl|eh`k @o|`k M{wk{m X|{wx%*
 
85 LKNCO\H4LNIGA GO[JX\U E\OJFM 76&9% <228
Xfk re` e|oj piw gojsk|xkh xo p|o{`fx e|oj ix xfkJkxfk|xoj po|aw &Ce`* 7%* Ej 9657 xfew wexk gojxiejkh‖972 R{hhnej`. Fkixej`. Linn. Menn ijh Co|`ej` C{|jigkw.pexf xfk jkgkwwi|u Fknskw. Wxkim Fimmk|w. X|iejw oc \onnw#g* #g*― &\unijh 9657. 89<%* Ix xfew xemk xfk ce|m r|oh{gkhi pehk |ij`k oc hecck|kjx y{inexekw oc e|oj. c|om gommojo| mk|gfijx li| xo ‖Lkwx Lkwx Lkwx― `|ihkw*Ce`{|k 8 ew i hkxien oc xfk kjx|u c|om \unijh―w
 He|kgxo|u
oc 9657 pfegf newxw xfk l|ijhw {wkh ej xfix uki|1 xfkwki|k hewg{wwkh c{|xfk| lknop* Iw pknn iw r|oh{gej` |o{jhwco| gfiejmiaej` xfk ce|m inwo |onnkh wy{i|kw. cnixw. xfegacnixw ijh si|eo{w ij`nkw. xo`kxfk| pexf i lkpenhk|ej`i||iu oc mo|k gomrnkv wkgxeojw co| wrkgeinewx r{|rowkw&Fej`nku ijh Woj 9593%* Fej`nkuw inwo mihk xfke| opjgfiejw ijh gfiej gilnkw. pfegf pk|k {wkh ej mejkw.|ienpiuw ijh wferw* Jkxfk|xoj p|o{`fx e|oj piw gniemkhxo occk| w{rk|eo| |kwewxijgk xo ‖wfoga ijh sel|ixeoj Qijh]go||oweoj― osk| wxkkn ijh oxfk| l|ijhw oc p|o{`fx e|oj&Fej`nku ijh Woj 9592. 9;-0%* Lu xfk x{|j oc xfk
Ce`{|k 74 Kvxk|eo| sekp oc Jo*7 Co|`k. J* Fej`nku ijh Wojw Nxh*. Jkxfk|xoj. xiakj oj 7|h Mi|gf 95;9* Xfew rfoxo`|irf. xo`kxfk|pexf oxfk|w |kr|oh{gkh lknop &Ce`w ;. 3 ijh 0%. ew c|om xfk Akexf @ink Nel|i|u ix xfk Lniga Go{jx|u Nesej` M{wk{m ijh fiw lkkj|kr|oh{gkh fk|k pexf xfk aejh rk|mewweoj oc M|w @ink* LGNM Akexf @ink Nel|i|u. 9558/297/9<80 &@ink 95;9i%*Ce`{|k 84 L|ijhw newxkh ej xfk \unijh―w
He|kgxo|u
kjx|u co| J* Fej`nku ijh Wojw ej 9657 &go{|xkwu E|ojl|eh`k @o|`k M{wk{m X|{wx%*

Activity (3)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
Julie McNeill liked this
1 thousand reads
1 hundred reads

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->