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A Guide to Waste Water Treatment

A Guide to Waste Water Treatment

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Published by: Sugath Chandana Vimalasundara on Sep 22, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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i
 
A GUIDETOWASTEWATERTREATMENT
Case studies Included
 
ii
CONTENTS
 
SECTION PAGE
1
 
INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................... 0
 
1.1
 
Wastewater sources, composition and flow rate estimation ................................................................. 1
1.1.1
 
Domestic wastewater ........................................................................................................ 1
 
1.1.2
 
Industrial Wastewater ....................................................................................................... 2
 
1.2
 
Water Quality Standard-Measures of Water Quality- When is water contaminated ............................ 3
1.2.1
 
Dissolved oxygen .............................................................................................................. 3
 
1.2.2
 
Biochemical oxygen demand ............................................................................................ 4
 
1.2.3
 
Solids ................................................................................................................................. 5
 
FIGURE1
 
CLASSIFICATION OF TOTAL SOLIDS (BASED ON FILTRATION)(VESILIND & ROOKE, 2003) ............................................................................................. 5
 
1.2.4
 
 Nitrogen............................................................................................................................. 5
 
1.2.5
 
Phosphorous ...................................................................................................................... 6
 
1.2.6
 
Bacteriological measurements .......................................................................................... 6
 
1.3
 
Wastewater characteristics .................................................................................................................... 7
1.3.1
 
Physical characteristics of wastewater ............................................................................. 8
 
1.3.2
 
Chemical wastewater characteristics ................................................................................ 9
 
1.3.3
 
Biological Characteristics of Wastewaters ..................................................................... 11
 
1.4
 
Effects of Untreated liquid effluents ................................................................................................... 12
1.4.1
 
Health effects .................................................................................................................. 12
 
1.4.2
 
Increase in the B.O.D. & C.O.D. content of water bodies ............................................. 13
 
1.4.3
 
Increase in nutrient content ............................................................................................. 13
 
1.4.4
 
Increase of soil deposition .............................................................................................. 14
 
1.4.5
 
Effects of odours ............................................................................................................. 14
 
1.4.6
 
Effects of Increased Temperatures ................................................................................. 14
 
1.5
 
Wastewater collection systems ........................................................................................................... 15
1.5.1
 
Sanitary sewer systems ................................................................................................... 16
 
1.5.2
 
Storm sewer systems ....................................................................................................... 16
 
1.5.3
 
Combined sewer systems ................................................................................................ 17
 
1.5.4
 
Collection System Components...................................................................................... 17
 
FIGURE2
 
(A) JUNCTION BOXES (B) INTERCEPTOR PIPES (DRINAN &WHITING, 2001) ................................................................................................................. 18
 
 
iii
2
 
WASTE WATER TREATMENT METHODS ........................................................ 18
 
FIGURE3
 
TYPICAL STAGES IN THE CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT OFSEWAGE 19
 
FIGURE4 .............................................................................................................................. 20
 
constituent .................................................................................................................................................... 20Unit operation or process ............................................................................................................................. 20Suspended Solids ......................................................................................................................................... 20
3
 
INDUSTRIAL WASTE WATER TREATMENT METHODS .............................. 22
 
3.1
 
Physical/chemical treatment methods ................................................................................................. 23
3.1.1
 
Screening ......................................................................................................................... 23
 
FIGURE5
 
INCLINED BAR SCREEN ........................................................................... 24
 
FIGURE6
 
CURVED BAR SCREEN .............................................................................. 25
 
FIGURE7
 
RADIAL BAR SCREEN ............................................................................... 25
 
FIGURE8
 
STEP TYPE SCREEN ................................................................................... 25
 
FIGURE9
 
BRUSH TYPE SCREEN ............................................................................... 26
 
3.1.2
 
Sedimentation.................................................................................................................. 26
 
FIGURE10
 
CIRCULAR AND RECTANGULAR SETTLING TANKS .................. 26
 
FIGURE11
 
PRIMARY CLARIFIER ELEVATION VIEW ...................................... 27
 
FIGURE12
 
PRIMARY CLARIFIER PLAN VIEW ................................................... 27
 
FIGURE13
 
SUCTION TUBE CLARIFIER ELEVATION ....................................... 27
 
FIGURE14
 
PICKET FENCE SLUDGE THICKENER ............................................. 28
 
3.1.3
 
Flotation and Skimming ................................................................................................. 28
 
FIGURE15 ............................................................................................................................ 29
 
3.2
 
Chemical treatment methods ............................................................................................................... 29
3.2.1
 
Chlorination .................................................................................................................... 30
 
FIGURE16
 
CHLORINATOR ....................................................................................... 30
 
3.2.2
 
Ozonation ........................................................................................................................ 31
 
FIGURE17
 
OZONE WATER TREATED AREA ...................................................... 31
 

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