4. If a is not constant
(i) (a varies with distance) Let a = ax+biTotal expansion =
J
expansion
of length dx
= |(ax + b)dxAt(ii) (a varies with tempearture)Let a = f (T)
dx" x
1
dx
T
2
A/ _ j"a/
0
dT
Ti
Caution:
If a is in °C then put Tj and T
2
in °C.similarly if a is in K then put
Tj
and T
2
in K.
CAL ORIMETR Y
Quantity of heat transfered and specific heat
The amount ofheat needed to incerase the temperature of
1
gmofwaterfrom 14.5°Cto 15.5°CatSTPis
1
caloriedQ = mcdT
'h
Q = m [ C dT (be careful about unit of temperature, use units according to the given units of C)
Ti
Heat transfer in phase change
Q =
rnL
L = latent heat of substance in cal/ gm/
°C
or in Kcal/ kg/ °CL
ice
= 80 cal/ gm
for
ice
L
steam
= 540 Cal/
g
m
HEAT- TRANSFER
(A) Conduction :
Due to vibration and collision of medium particles.
(i) Steady State :
In this state heat absorption stops and temperature gradient throughout the roddT becomes constant i.e. — = constant.dx
(ii) Before steady state :
Temp of rod at any point changes
Note:
If
specific
heat of any substance is zero, it can be considered always in steady state.
1. Ohm's law for Thermal Conduction in Steady State :
Let the two ends of rod of length
1 is
maintained at temp Tj and T
2
(
Tj
> T
2
)dQ
T
i
~
T
2
I
Thermal current = L
D
1
K-XH T
1
/
Where thermal resistance R
Th
=
1 1
2. Differential form of Ohm's Law
dQ dT dT — =KA— — = temperature gradientdT dx dx
KA
T-dTdx
(!l Bansal Classes
Calorimetry
& Heat Transfer [3]