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Bansal CLasses Physics Study Material for IIT JEE

# Bansal CLasses Physics Study Material for IIT JEE

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08/25/2015

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BANSAL CLASSES
TARGET LIT JEE 2007
XI (PQRS)
CALORIMETRY
HEAT TRANSFER
CONTENTS
KEYCONCEPT  EXERCISE-I  EXERCISE-II  EXERCISE-III  ANSWER KEY

THERMAL EXPANSION
Definition of Heat:
Heat is a form of energy which is transferred between a system and its surrounding as a result of temperature
difference
only.
Thermal Expansion :
Expansion due to increase in temperature.
1. Type of thermal expansion
Coefficient of expansion
(i) Linear (ii) Superficial(iii) Volume
T
. 1 A /a = Lim
At—>0
/
0
At
P = Lim1 AA
At—
A
0
At
y = Lim1 AV
At—>o
v
0
At
For temperature changeAt change in
length
Al
=
0
a
AtArea AA= A^Atvolume AV = V
0
yAt(a)(b)
2.
For isotropic solids
otj
= a
2
= a
3
= a (let)so P =2a and y = 3aFor anisotropic solids p =
otj
+ a
2
and
y
= a, + a
2
+ a
3
Here , a
2
and a
3
are
coefficient
of linear expansion in X, Y and Z directions.
Variation in density :
With increase of temperature volume increases so density decreases andvice-versa.Hd =
-
Note
(0
(ii)
3.
(1
+ yAt)For solids values of
y
are generally small
so
we can write
d
= d
0
(1-yAt) (using bimomial expansion)
y for
liquids are in order of 10~
3
For water density increases from
0
to 4°C so y is -ve
(0
to
C) and for
C to higher temperature yis +ve. At
4° C
density is maximum.
Thermal Stress:
Arod of length
1
0
is clamped between two fixed walls with distance
1
0
.
If temperatureis changed by amount At thenF(area assumed to be constant)stress
:
AA/strain =
I
so,or Y =F/A F/
0
FA///
0
AA I AaAtF =YAa
A
t
(!l Bansal ClassesCalorimetry & Heat Transfer [3]

4. If a is not constant
(i) (a varies with distance) Let a = ax+biTotal expansion =
J
expansion
of length dx
= |(ax + b)dxAt(ii) (a varies with tempearture)Let a = f (T)
dx" x
1
dx
T
2
A/ _ j"a/
0
dT
Ti
Caution:
If a is in °C then put Tj and T
2
in °C.similarly if a is in K then put
Tj
and T
2
in K.
CAL ORIMETR
Quantity of heat transfered and specific heat
The amount ofheat needed to incerase the temperature of
1
gmofwaterfrom 14.5°Cto 15.5°CatSTPis
1
caloriedQ = mcdT
'h
Q = m [ C dT (be careful about unit of temperature, use units according to the given units of C)
Ti
Heat transfer in phase change
Q =
rnL
L = latent heat of substance in cal/ gm/
°C
or in Kcal/ kg/ °CL
ice
= 80 cal/ gm
fo
ice
L
steam
= 540 Cal/
g
m
HEAT- TRANSFER
(A) Conduction :
Due to vibration and collision of medium particles.
In this state heat absorption stops and temperature gradient throughout the roddT becomes constant i.e. = constant.dx
Temp of rod at any point changes
Note:
If
specific
heat of any substance is zero, it can be considered always in steady state.
1. Ohm's law for Thermal Conduction in Steady State :
Let the two ends of rod of length
1 is
maintained at temp Tj and T
2
(
Tj
> T
2
)dQ
T
i
~
T
2
I
Thermal current = L
D
1
K-XH T
1
/
Where thermal resistance
Th
=
1 1
2. Differential form of Ohm's Law
dQ dT dT — =KA= temperature gradientdT dx dx
K
T-dTdx
(!l Bansal Classes
Calorimetry
& Heat Transfer [3]

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