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1. Which two statements are true about identifying unused indexes? (Choose two.)A. Performance is improved by eliminating unnecessary overhead during DMLoperations.B. V$INDEX_STATS displays statistics that are gathered when using the MONITORINGUSAGE keyword.C. Each time the MONITORING USAGE clause is specified, the V$OBJECT_USAGEview is reset for the specified index.D. Each time the MONITORING USAGE clause is specified, a new monitoring starttime is recorded in the alert log.Answer: A, CExplanation:Monitoring Index UsageOracle provides a means of monitoring indexes to determine if they are being used or notused. If it is determined that an index is not being used, then it can be dropped, thuseliminating unnecessary statement overhead.To start monitoring an index's usage, issue this statement:ALTER INDEX index MONITORING USAGE;Later, issue the following statement to stop the monitoring:ALTER INDEX index NOMONITORING USAGE;The view V$OBJECT_USAGE can be queried for the index being monitored to see if theindex has been used. The view contains a USED column whose value is YES or NO,depending upon if the index has been used within the time period being monitored. Theview also contains the start and stop times of the monitoring period, and aMONITORING column (YES/NO) to indicate if usage monitoring is currently active.Each time that you specify MONITORING USAGE, the V$OBJECT_USAGE view isreset for the specified index. The previous usage information is cleared or reset, and anew start time is recorded. When you specify NOMONITORING USAGE, no further monitoring is performed, and the end time is recorded for the monitoring period. Until thenext ALTER INDEX ... MONITORING USAGE statement is issued, the viewinformation is left unchanged.2. You need to create an index on the SALES table, which is 10 GB in size. You wantyour index to be spread across many tablespaces, decreasing contention for index lookup,and increasing scalability and manageability.Which type of index would be best for this table?A. bitmapB. uniqueC. partitionedD. reverse keyE. single columnF. function-based
Answer: CExplanation:I suggest that you read chapters 10 & 11 in Oracle9i Database Concepts Release 2 (9.2)March 2002 Part No. A96524-01 (a96524.pdf)Oracle9i Database Concepts Release 2 (9.2) March 2002 Part No. A96524-01(a96524.pdf) ch 10 Bitmap IndexesThe purpose of an index is to provide pointers to the rows in a table that contain a givenkey value. In a regular index, this is achieved by storing a list of rowids for each keycorresponding to the rows with that key value. Oracle stores each key valuerepeatedlywith each storedrowid.In abitmap index,abitmapfor eachkey value is used instead of a listof rowids.Each bit in the bitmap corresponds to a possible rowid. If the bit is set, then it means thatthe row with the corresponding rowid contains the key value. A mapping functionconverts the bit position to an actual rowid, so the bitmap index provides the samefunctionality as a regular index even though it uses a differentrepresentation internally. If the number of different key values is small, then bitmapindexes are very space efficient.Bitmap indexing efficiently merges indexes that correspond to several conditions in aWHERE clause. Rows that satisfy some, but not all, conditions are filtered out before thetable itself is accessed. This improves response time, often dramatically. Note: Bitmap indexes are available only if you have purchased the Oracle9i EnterpriseEdition.See Oracle9i Database New Features for more information about the features available inOracle9i and the Oracle9i Enterprise Edition.Oracle9i Database Concepts Release 2 (9.2) March 2002 Part No. A96524-01(a96524.pdf) ch 11Partitioned IndexesJust like partitioned tables, partitioned indexes improve manageability, availability, performance, and scalability. They can either be partitioned independently (globalindexes) or automatically linked to a table's partitioning method (local indexes).Local Partitioned IndexesLocal partitioned indexes are easier to manage than other types of partitioned indexes.They also offer greater availability and are common in DSS environments. The reason for this is equipartitioning: each partition of a local index is associated with exactly one partition of the table. This enables Oracle to automatically keep the index partitions insync with the table partitions, and makes each table-index pair independent. Any actionsthat make one partition's data invalid or unavailable only affect a single partition.You cannot explicitly add a partition to a local index. Instead, new partitions are added tolocal indexes only when you add a partition to the underlying table. Likewise, you cannotexplicitly drop a partition from a local index. Instead, local index partitions are droppedonly when you drop a partition from the underlying table.
A local index can be unique. However, in order for a local index to be unique, the partitioning key of the table must be part of the index's key columns. Unique localindexesare useful for OLTP environments.See Also: Oracle9i Data Warehousing Guide for more information about partitionedindexesname, and stores the index partition in the same tablespace as the table partition.Global Partitioned IndexesGlobal partitioned indexes are flexible in that the degree of partitioning and the partitioning key are independent from the table's partitioning method. They arecommonly used for OLTP environments and offer efficient access to any individualrecord.The highest partition of a global index must have a partition bound, all of whose valuesare MAXVALUE. This ensures that all rows in the underlying table can be represented inthe index. Global prefixed indexes can be unique or nonunique. You cannot add a partition to a global index because the highest partition always has a partition bound of MAXVALUE. If you wish to add a new highest partition, use the ALTER INDEX SPLITPARTITION statement. If a global index partition is empty, you can explicitly drop it byissuing the ALTER INDEX DROP PARTITION statement. If a global index partitioncontains data, dropping the partition causes the next highest partition to be markedunusable. You cannot drop the highest partition in a global index.Oracle9i Database Concepts Release 2 (9.2) March 2002 Part No. A96524-01(a96524.pdf) ch 10Unique and Nonunique IndexesIndexes canbeunique or nonunique.Unique indexesguaranteethat notworows of a tablehave duplicate values in the key column (or columns). Nonunique indexes do not imposethis restriction on the column values. Oracle recommends that unique indexes be createdexplicitly, and not throughenabling a unique constraint on a table.Alternatively, you can define UNIQUE integrity constraints on the desired columns.Oracle enforces UNIQUE integrity constraints by automatically defining a unique indexon the unique key. However, it is advisable that any index that exists for query performance, including unique indexes, be created explicitly.Reverse Key IndexesCreating a reverse key index,compared to a standard index, reverses the bytes of eachcolumn indexed (except the rowid) while keeping the column order. Such an arrangementcan help avoid performance degradation with Oracle9i Real Application Clusters wheremodifications to the index are concentrated on a small set of leaf blocks. By reversing thekeys of the index, the insertions become distributed across all leaf keys in the index.Using the reverse key arrangement eliminates the ability to run an index range scanningquery on the index. Because lexically adjacent keys are not stored next to each other in areverse-key index, only fetch-by-key or full-index (table) scans can be performed.Sometimes, using a reverse-key index can make an OLTP Oracle9i Real ApplicationClusters application faster. For example, keeping the index of mail messages in an e-mailapplication: some users keep old messages, and the index must maintain pointers to theseas well as to the most recent.

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