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Understanding Alloys

Understanding Alloys

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Published by: chia22970 on Jul 03, 2008
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Polymer is a large molecule that is in the form of a long chain with a high relativemolecular mass (RMM).
It is made up of many smaller units called monomers, which are joined together through a process called polymerisation. Thus the monomer is actually therepititive unit of a long polymer chain. picture
There are two types of polymers:1.Natural polymers2.Synthetic polymers
[edit] Natural Polymers
These occur naturally in living things. Some examples of natural polymers are:1.Natural rubber 2.Protein in meat, leather, silk, hair and fur 3.Carbohydrates in cellulose, starch and sugar 
 Natural polymers are made up of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen.
 Natural rubber comprises the molecules of the monomer 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene,also called isopropene, joined together to form a long chain, as in: picture
Protein is obtained by the combination of amino acid molecules which representthe monomer units. picture
Carbohydrates are formed through the combination of glucose molecule which actas the monomer. picture
[edit] Synthetic Polymers
Synthetic polymer is a polymer that is manufactured in industry from chemicalsubstances through the polymerisation process. Through research, scientists arenow able to copy the structure of natural polymers to produce synthetic polymers.
Plastics, synthetic fibres and elastomers are examples of synthetic polymers.
The raw materials for the manufacture of synthetic polymers are distillates of  petroleum.
The two types of polymerisation are:1.polymerisation by addition2.polymerisation by condensation
Polymerisation by addition involves monomers with >C = C< bonding, where themonomers join together to make a long chain without losing any simplemolecules from it. Examples of polymers produced through this process are polythene, PVC perspex and other plastics.
Polymerisation by condensation involves the elimination of small molecules likewater, methanol, ammonia or hydrogen chloride during the process. Examples of  products of this process are terylene and nylon-66.
Plastics are light, strong and do not react with any chemical substances, like acidsand alkalis. They can be made into many shapes and sizes. They are also goodinsulators of heat and electricity.
Plastics (Addition ) Structure Uses
Polythene (polyethylene) picturePlastic bags, containers and cups –light; cannot tear easilyPolyvinyl chloride or PVC(polychloroethene) pictureraincoat, pipes, to insulate electric wires –can be coloured; heat resistantPolystyrene(polyphenylethene) picturePackaging materials, children toys, ball- point pens, as heat and electric insulators – light and strongPerspex (polymethyl2-methyl propene) pictureAeroplane window panes, lenses, car lamp covers –light, strong, translucent, stable towardssunlightPolypropene picturePlastics, bottles, plastic tables and chairs –strong and lightTeflon(polytetrafluoroethene or picture To make non-stick pots and pans

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