toHIV and taking anti-retroviral(ARV) drugs. When a person does not adhere to their treatment
regimen, there is the chance that the body will develop resistance to the drug and the drug may
not work as well anymore (seeresistance).
These are the special drugs being used to treat people with HIV and prevent further immune suppression. Examples of the key ARV drug classes are nucleoside(tide) reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), non-nucleoside(tide) reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) and protease inhibitor (PI).
behavior change) refers to an interactive process used by engaging communities to develop
tailored messages that may be delivered through various channels of communication. The goal is
to develop messages that lead to changes in behavior that eventually lead to HIV prevention.
laboratory test can help practitioners learn how strong a person’s immune system is. This test is used in combination with the viral load test, which measures the amount ofHIV in the blood. Both tests are used to predict staging of HIV and help determine the proper medical treatment a patient requires. The number of CD4 cells we have is called our CD4 count. The lower one’s CD4 count, the more likely one is to show signs of illness. A low CD4 count is less than 200: at this stage, treatment is usually considered.
their families, and communities to provide holistic, culturally appropriate care on a variety of
levels. Care may include medical and nursing care, counseling and psychosocial support,
socioeconomic support, and referral. HBC may be carried out by community volunteers or
medical professionals, depending on the type of service that is being provided. The programs are
often used in conjunction with palliative care which usually includes clinical, social,
psychological, spiritual, and positive prevention efforts.
counseling and testing is used to help people ascertain theirH IV status. A blood or saliva test detects the presence of HIV-antibodies and usually involves a pre-test counseling session and a post-test session, where the test results are shared and clients are counseled about prevention or treatment depending on their test results. If the test shows that antibodies are present, the person is HIV-positive; if not, the person is most likely HIV-negative or within the window period.
VCT means an HIV test that is offered to patients on a voluntary basis including pre- and post-
test counseling. Some countries and health care facilities are promoting “opt out” testing, in
which people seeking medical care at a health facility are routinely screened for HIV in high
prevalence areas, unless they “opt out.” Part of the underlying motivation for this approach is to
de-stigmatize HIV, so that it is considered like any other disease. Voluntary counseling and
testing (VCT) is considered to be an “opt in” program because the person takes the initiative
immune system that progressively weakens the body’s ability to fight infection. There are four modes of transmission of HIV: (1) sexual intercourse; (2) blood; (3) in utero, primarily during childbirth; and (4) breastfeeding.
UNAIDS normally reports HIV prevalence among adults aged 15–49 years. We do not say
“prevalence rates” because a time period of observation is generally not involved. “Prevalence”
alone is sufficient, e.g., “the Caribbean region, with estimated adult HIV prevalence of 2.3
percent in 2003, is an area to focus on in the future.”
do not affect a person with a healthy immune system. Some opportunistic infections experienced
by people with advancedHIV infection include pneumocystic carinii pneumonia; Kaposi’s
sarcoma; cryptosporidiosis; histoplasmosis; other parasitic, viral and fungal infections; and some
other types of cancers.
prevention ofOIs) in people living with HIV & AIDS. This approach is often used in
combination with home based care(H BC). According toPEPFAR and other funders, palliative
care should provide services which support quality of life for HIV-positive adults and children.
Although traditional palliative care has focused on pain and symptom relief at the end of life,
PEPFAR programs take a broader view, incorporating clinical, psychological, spiritual, social,
and preventive care services. It begins with the HIV-positive diagnosis and extends though the
end of life, using a family-centered approach. In best practices, palliative care is provided with
respect for patient autonomy and choice, support for care givers, and appreciation and respect for
cultural values, beliefs, and customs. It should provide the routine monitoring that is essential for
determining the optimal time to initiate anti-retroviral therapy(ART), and it continues during
and after the initiation of treatment. Palliative care includes and goes beyond the medical
management of infectious, neurological, or oncological complications of HIV and AIDS to
comprehensively address symptoms and suffering throughout the continuum of HIV disease.
2003 by President George W. Bush to addressHIV prevention ($10 million),AIDS andOVC
care and support ($7 million) and AIDS treatment ($2 million) over 5 years. Approved by the
U.S. Congress in 2003, the first funds were distributed in 2004. A fund of $50 billion is expected
when and if PEPFAR is reauthorized by the U.S. Congress.
accomplished when a person has a good attitude about their HIV status. A positive attitude can
be achieved when a person has the knowledge and the medical and economic tools to live a
normal, productive life as an HIV-positive individual.
long time, there is the chance that the body will develop resistance to the drug. When the body
develops resistance, the drug does not work as well to delayHIV replication. In turn, the
person’s immune system will become weaker. This is why it is important to focus heavily on
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?